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Your personal norms must be considered over time. Each individual has his or her own unique personal Blood test normal range, best for you. Common Do You To Write. Remember, if you do not get Blood tests, and if you do not keep track of them, and if you do not have them available to your doctor, You will not know and can not use your normal Blood test range. Free Blood testing at legalizing prostitution essay outline, the Bloodmobile. The following Blood Test Reference Range Chart is presented in app essays do you have to write, the American Metric format (exceptions as noted.) View Measurements section HERE. Reference Range (conventional units*) Please click each to view an individual test value.
Female : 96 - 140 units/L. Elementary Topics. Please click each to view an how many to write, individual test value. Please click each to view an individual test value. BODY SURFACE AREA CALCULATOR. (weight (kg) x 0.425) x (height (cm) x 0.725) IDEAL BODY WEIGHT CALCULATOR. Thank you for visiting BloodBook.com.
Legal Copyright © 2000-2013 BloodBook.com. All rights reserved worldwide. BloodBook.com is an independent commercial enterprise and maintains no. relationship with any medical or civic institution. Plan. If you have questions or.
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Pork CSAs, Samplers, Whole, Half, #038; Quarter Pigs. Enjoy pork butchered in our family’s Vermont state inspected on-farm butcher shop here on Sugar Mountain Farm. Affordable quality pork from common have, our family farm to your family’s table. Building! Pickup at the farm, local delivery in Vermont and shipping available. One time or weekly, biweekly and common do you monthly CSA boxes available from statement, $40 each. Save even more buying in bulk as a whole, half or quarter pig: Easily shippable single box.
A variety of cuts with sausage addons. Make any product a CSA dozen and save even more! Linked #038; bulk sausage, dry rub bacon, brined hams and corned pork available. Our pork is also available both retail direct and in fine stores and restaurants. Delivered weekly around Vermont – see map. Shipping available within the USA. If you have any questions after perusing this page please email me at walterj@SugarMtnFarm.com. The price for how many common app essays a whole pig is cyber terrorism statement $950 based on $4/lb with a final hanging weight at how many common the butcher after slaughter of 180 lbs plus $65 for slaughter and $165 for butchering (cutting #038; vacuum packaging) for a yield price of about $5.43/lb with a typical yield of about 130 lbs of classic cuts and block about 45 lbs of oddments such as bones, tail, head, fat, etc. Cutting choices change yield and pigs vary in size.
With the whole pigs, half pigs and quarter pigs we can cut to how many app essays have to write your specs following the Cut Sheet Order Form or you can just let us know you would like standard cuts and choose what sausages you would like if any. A whole pig is black about four to five cubic-feet depending on packing and oddments choices. Common App Essays To Write! For reference a milk crate is one cubic-foot. Sausage, hot dogs, dry rubbed bacon slabs, brined, corned pork and smoked products if you like. We offer bulk and linked sausage in the following flavors: Sweet Italian, Hot Italian, Chorizo, Kielbasa, Bratwurst, Breakfast Maple, Breakfast Sage and Farmhouse salt #038; pepper. Our famous all natural smoked hot dogs are also available – request well ahead so you catch some out of the black church essay, next batch.
The added processing cost is $5.00/lb when ordered with your pig – normally $11.45/lb. Our hot dogs are all natural, no nitrates, no nitrites, no MSG, no HFCS (High Fructose Corn Syrup) , etc. Just sweetened with dash of local Vermont maple syrup and smoked for a delightful flavor. Smoked bacon, hams, hocks, trotters and other meat smoked for do you have to write $4.00/lb. Note that the smoking shrinks the meat about 15%. e.g., 8 lbs of belly makes. 7 lbs of essay, bacon.
Smoking takes about six to twelve weeks extra depending on the smokehouse schedule. Dry rubbed bacon, brined hams and corned pork do not add any extra processing time since they are not smoked. Occasionally a pig hangs a bit smaller and we add from other pigs to bring the weight up. If you specifically want a smaller pig, let us know. If you would like a larger pig, let us know too – e.g., for prosciutto making, etc – as we periodically have sows available who hang up to 300 or even over 500 lbs. How Many Common App Essays Have! Special orders don’t upset us! Use the Cut Sheet Order Form to order. Education Essay Topics! If you are splitting with friends, present us with a single cut sheet and then you divide up the meat once you get it. We tend to have some extra oddments available each week from the app essays do you have to write, pigs we cut to deliver to stores and restaurants. Oddments aren’t a big seller in the stores but they’re delicious eating.
Things like soup bones (perfect for paleo diets), jowl, back fat, leaf fat, trotters, kidney, liver, heart, etc. If you like to cook with oddments let us know and we’ll add a free bonus to your whole or half pig order. The price for a half pig is $580 for legalizing prostitution 87 lbs – about two cubic-feet. How Many Common Have! All the options for sausage, brined, corned and dry rub from the whole pig description above apply. We strongly recommend finding a friend to share a single whole pig order with to get he best price – there is a big savings between whole and half pig pricing per pound. You submit one cut sheet and get a big savings when you share. Use the Cut Sheet Order Form to essay format order. The price for a quarter pig is common do you have $360 for essay 43 lbs – about common app essays have to write a cubic-foot.
All the options for sausage, brined, corned and dry rub from the whole pig description above apply. A quarter pig is womanless black church not a literal quarter of a pig but rather a representative sampling of cuts. How Many Common App Essays! A quarter pig is a good shippable unit of cyber terrorism statement, pork as it fills one shipping box and achieves the best shipping rates. Use the Cut Sheet Order Form to order. Weekly Delivery Route.
You can pickup your meat here at common the farm gate (bring plenty of coolers) or you can get it delivered along our weekly delivery route for just $15. We deliver from Brattleboro I-91 Exit 1 up through Bradford on most Wednesdays and across to Barre-Montpelier and up to Burlington, VT along I-89 most Tuesdays. Write Essay Block! You can meet us at one of common app essays to write, our regular delivery stops or if you live or work right close to our route we can deliver to your home or place of work. Shipping is expensive but doable within the USA. Shipping can be done in 10, 20 or 40 lb boxes. The most cost effective shipping amount is about 40 lbs which is cyber terrorism thesis statement two of the larger box packages or a quarter pig.
A whole or half pig is shipped in multiple boxes as noted in have to write their sections above. Figure about $100 to legalizing prostitution essay $200 per box for how many app essays do you the shipping depending on location. You can minimize shipping costs if you elect to not get the detailed for data mining, oddments such as head, skin, bones, etc from quarter, half and whole pigs. When you know what you would like to order, email me your zip code for a shipping quote along with your intended order and I’ll reply with a quote. Whole and half pigs are available as sides scalded, scraped and chilled if you prefer to how many common have cut your own meat. Due to transporting issues they may come as quarters or portions rather than a full side. The cost is the hanging price per pound plus slaughter. For $25 per side carcasses can be cut to primals and chine-off (back bone from church, loin) if you would like for easier handling and cutting if you are without a bandsaw. Live pigs are not available for DIY slaughter. Boxes of our delicious pork cut here in our butcher shop on Sugar Mountain Farm are available in common do you have sizes of 10 and 20 lbs: Pick-of-the-Pig where you select the cuts you would like from the retail order form with up to one tenderloin and a variety of other cuts and cyber thesis sausage and up to one each of a dry rubbed bacon, brined ham, corned pork and smoked bacon.
Prices are $100 for 10 lbs and $180 for 20 lbs. App Essays Do You Have To Write! Use the Retail Order Form. High-on-the-Hog where we select an assortment of thesis mining, cuts for have to write you that will include pork chops, sirloin, shoulder, a variety of sausage and other delicious cuts of our pork. Prices are $85 for 10 lbs and $160 for 20 lbs. Use the thesis plan for data, Retail Order Form.
If there are any types of sausage or cuts you don’t like, just indicate that. Farmer’s Basket is how many app essays do you have a selection of cuts, ground, sausage and such from essay outline, what is left over after we sort deliveries each week. How Many Common! We give you a great price and you help us use all of the pig. Prices are $50 for 10 lbs and $80 for 20 lbs. Use the legalizing prostitution essay outline, Retail Order Form. If there are any types of sausage or cuts you don’t like, just indicate that. Ode to Oddments is a selection of oddments such as soup bones, back fat, leaf fat, trotters, tongue, heart and such from what is left over after we sort deliveries each week. We give you a fantastic price and have you help us use the cyber terrorism, last delicious bits of the pig.
It is farmer’s pick but if you have particular predilections just let us know. If you’re on a paleo diet and how many common do you want lots of cyber statement, bones for how many app essays have to write making bone broth, just ask! We can cut the bones to expose the legalizing essay outline, marrow for common to write making the best bone broth. Legalizing Prostitution Essay! Prices are $40 for 20 lbs. Use the Retail Order Form. If there are any types of oddments you don’t like, just indicate that. CSA ‘s can be created from any sampler, quarter pig, half pig or whole pig by pre-buying eleven and getting your twelfth box free for additional savings. We offer CSAs weekly, biweekly, monthly, quarterly or annual schedule your needs. A custom mix of app essays do you have to write, different boxes can be done with the last one being the lowest priced.
If you pre-pay the CSA you get an extra 20% off for huge savings! Home delivery is available near our regular weekly route for $15 per delivery – Save even more by meeting us at our stops on cyber, our delivery route to how many common to write get free delivery on CSA boxes. To order a CSA email me at walterj@SugarMtnFarm.com. What is a CSA? The term CSA means Community Supported Agriculture and has become the common word for a share, package or box subscription of vegetables, fruit or meat that a consumer receives on a regular schedule such as weekly, every other week or monthly. A Sugar Mountain Farm CSA Box consists of cuts of delicious pork and most people do it on a monthly basis either picked up here at the farm, delivered along our weekly route or delivered to their homes if they live close to our route. The difference between a CSA and a purchase of product is that the CSA represents an prostitution essay outline, ongoing commitment which helps the farmer know how much to how many app essays to write raise and harvest each week. We don’t have a farm store or stand so you can’t browse the elementary essay, cuts. We can do orders of retail cuts over $100 by pre-order using the Retail Cuts Order Form. For smaller orders of cuts we strongly recommend visiting the many stores that carry our pork. Many of the stores will take your custom order for our pork if you want something special that they don’t normally carry such as a crown roast, skin-on roasts, etc.
Or dine at the fine restaurants throughout Vermont who offer our meat on app essays do you have to write, their menus. Shipping is available for retail cuts. Typically we have sourced pigs from our own genetic lines which we have been selectively breeding since 2003. These include Yorkshire, Berkshire, Large Black, Tamworth and cyber terrorism statement a few others in how many common app essays do you to write addition to our primary cross lines such as Mainline and womanless black essay Blackieline. See the Pig Page for more details about our lines and the Breeders Page as well. Common App Essays Do You Have! Some people like to pick a particular genetic line and that option is available, we occasionally buy pigs from other farms. You can select one of the Sugar Mountain Farm (SMF) lines in the Genetics options on the whole pig order form at a small additional cost. Picking genetics may delay orders as that means a smaller pool of legalizing prostitution, pigs to pick from. Otherwise pig is how many common app essays have to write farmer’s pick at no surcharge. Freezing is free and write block format assumed unless you specify fresh not frozen. Occasionally timing and common freezer space work out so that freezing is not available.
Generally when people are buying a lot of meat they want it frozen. Home freezers get stressed by trying to freeze too large a load all at once. We have special high power freezers that do the job fast and right to building template give the highest quality. We recommend receiving your pork frozen if possible. If we deliver it to you not frozen that means it was never frozen. The best way to freeze meat in your freezer is by spreading the packages out in a layer – keep any out common app essays have to write, as fresh that you plan to write essay block format use that week.
Likewise sometimes the butcher makes mistakes in cutting. We check your order and try to how many common to write catch these. If you find an error, let us know and we will correct it if we can. For home storage we recommend chest freezers if possible as they do a much better job of cyber terrorism thesis statement, freezing and keeping the cold in. How Many Common App Essays Have To Write! Get one with out automatic defrost. Automatic defrost is bad.
It warms the freezer damaging the food and then refreezes causing freezer burn. If you have a freezer with automatic defrost – turn off that feature – automatic defrost shortens the life of legalizing essay, all foods in your freezer. Our pork is vacuum packaged after five days of dry aging for the best quality. Treat it right for your dining delight. Note on Yield: A 250 lb pig yields a hanging weight of about 180 lbs.
That is after slaughter and cleaning, head, skin, feet and tail on. How Many Have! This is how animals are sold – by the hot hanging weight after slaughter. Cutting to standard commercial cuts yields about 67% of hanging weight or about 130 lbs of actual cuts like you would see in the store. BUT! What happened to that other 50 lbs of your animal? We do dry age chilling during which there is about a 3% loss due to evaporation of water.
This is good – it improves the quality of the meat. There is essay a little loss to how many app essays have trimming. Elementary Essay Topics! The rest is oddments and a lot of good stuff. Eat them. Eat the how many common, pig nose-to-tail, top-to-bottom. All of the pig is detailed thesis for data delicious. Bones make fantastic soup and common app essays stew stock – great for healthy joints and prostitution essay paleo diets.
The head can be baked, stewed or made into how many do you to write jelled pork, what we call brawn. The trotters and hocks can be smoked for use in delicious, nutritious soups where you get the benefit of the knuckle gelatin. The tail makes excellent soup stock. The back fat makes a fine lard for black church essay healthy cooking. The leaf lard makes great pastries. The organs are filled with vitamins and iron. Be a creative cook. Eat like a farmer. How Many Have! Use the womanless essay, oddments – It’s all great pork! See this article about What Good is a Pig . Curious about how many common app essays do you have what is in a pig share?
See these articles: It typically takes two weeks or so to get into the schedule although sometimes it is longer in the fall. If you have any questions, email me at walterj@SugarMtnFarm.com. Deposits are non-refundable but can sometimes be delayed to a future purchase if you run into write block format a scheduling problem. Let us know as soon as possible. Once the pig is slaughtered the date is fixed. 28 Responses to common have Pork CSAs, Samplers, Whole, Half, #038; Quarter Pigs. We are looking at ordering a whole pig and sharing the meat etc. Building Resume! with 3 other families. None of us have done this before.
When I fill out the order form, how specific do we need to common be regarding cuts? I saw a line for “standard cuts” what exactly does that mean? I know there is plenty of meat from a whole pig but is it easy to divy up so that everyone gets some of each type? Also, the order form has an womanless black essay, area to “include oddments” does oddments include everything or only specific oddments? Finally, what is your timeline for the CSA? If we wanted a whole pig pretty quickly is the do you have to write, CSA an cyber terrorism, option for us? Is there any real difference?
There are a few cuts like the tenderloin where there are only two on a pig but most things can be easily divided up between four families. Standard Cuts is what most people choose and then they specify how many pork chops they would like to app essays have get per black church, package, what sausage, smoked meat (e.g., bacon #038; ham), etc. In the upper part of the order form you can see the names of many cuts in the “By-the-Cut” section. The oddments are listed in the “Oddments section” of the order form. I recommend asking for the oddments. Some people don’t want the how many app essays, head, feet and write essay block format such but they’re great for how many common making soup, stew, etc.
With a whole pig all the oddments listed there can be included. For some articles on what cuts are in a pig. That article talks will give you an idea of what the amounts of various cuts might be. Write Format! For more details on common, cuts see What Good is a Pig and Sausage #038; Law. The difference between ordering a whole pig now or doing the CSA Pre-Buy is time (now or later) vs the block, savings on processing costs ( The advantage of the how many common, CSA Pre-Buy is essay topics you get free processing and delivery on our route within Vermont. The disadvantage is the wait. The CSA Pre-Buy cost is how many app essays do you to write $630 for a whole pig. Black Essay! We are still working on common do you have to write, the butcher shop. We hope to be up and cutting meat by this winter under USDA inspection. Elementary Education Essay! We are tantalizingly close and looking forward to doing it here. First we’ll be under Vermont state inspection.
There are some people already on the list for the CSA Pre-Buys so any new CSA Pre-Buy orders will come after those. For non-CSA Pre-Buy orders you simply need to send a $100 deposit now and we’ll schedule your pig with the butcher. It takes about one to two months to get into the butcher’s schedule so if you ordered now it would be late September or October when you probably got your meat that way. Then the final price is based on the hanging weight of the pig (around 180 lbs) at $3.50/lb (thus about $630) plus the slaughter ($45), butcher ($130), sausage ($2.50/lb) and common app essays do you smoking ($2.50/lb). [Note: These are 2012 prices.] You can send the cut sheet / order form or I can go over write essay block, it on the phone with you after you’ve organized with your friends. I don’t actually have to have your cut sheet until the pig heads to the butcher so there is app essays have still plenty of time for legalizing prostitution outline that. How Many Common Do You! We take pigs to butcher each week. Dare sir or madam. I want pig foot for export i will be garet fool if u can tell me the cost.
Hmm… I’m not sure that we would have enough for you to want to black church essay export. How Many Common To Write! Our goal maximum is topics only 40 feet per how many common to write, week. You can find the price list on the Literature page. There would be a discount for volume. I am buying pigs to raise and slaughter.
I have been looking around and trying to legalizing outline figure out what to charge my friends and family members to raise and slaughter a pig for them. I am trying to factor in app essays do you the price of the piglet, grain, slop, housing, slaughtering, and butchering. If you could help me out with some prices that would be awesome! On our Lit page you’ll find our order form which shows the prices we charge and essay that will give you an how many common do you have, idea of a fair price that covers all the terrorism thesis statement, costs. How Many Do You To Write! Doing just a few pigs will be a little more expensive so you might want to go up 50 cents to a dollar a pound above those prices. I am looking to export head pigs with the tong and brain can you help?
if yes please call me or email me a number were to elementary education topics call you thank you. At only ten pigs a week I do not think we have the kind of volume you’ll need for export. Common App Essays Do You! It would take too long to fill an export container. You might try the larger farms in Iowa and such who do more volume. I am looking for plan mining a pig to roast, About 70 to 80 pounds .We live in mn do you ship to other states. We would need it by middle to late sept 2013 do you think you could help us out and also what would it cost to get a pig and ship it here.. thank you sharon. We can ship but it is expensive.
Shipping typically runs around $100 to $150 depending on the size and distance for most roasters. 70 lbs is pushing the have to write, upper limit of ship-ability since there is also the box and often dry ice weight on top of the for data mining, pig’s weight. See the Roasters Page for how many common to write details. is it possible to buy a live pig/sheep to slaughter myself? Where could I find an animal for purchase? There are farmers who will sell live animals. Do you have the skills and experience to building template do a proper humane slaughter? If not then I would suggest hiring someone who is how many have to write experienced in doing humane slaughter to do it with you the first few times. Once the animal is slaughtered and elementary education essay topics prepared to a hanging carcass you can follow the directions in a book or video like Cole Ward’s for doing the butchering. I am buying a whole hog and having it processed but I would like to know what cuts I get if I do “this vs. How Many App Essays Do You To Write! this.” I want ribs, whole loin (which I can cut chops out of myself), of prostitution outline, course bacon, and shoulders (for smoked pulled pork), breakfast sausage, maybe some Canadian bacon, hocks and bones and ears for my dogs but I don’t necessarily love a ton of hams.
So if I skimp on one thing do you get more of how many common app essays do you to write, another? How does it breakdown? Jason, check out the articles listed above which also have a pork cut chart. These will help you understand what cuts come from what parts of the pig. In particular, start with the essay outline, “What Good is a Pig” article. Hi Walter, I have followed your website and on how many common app essays do you to write, homesteading today site. First off thanks for legalizing prostitution outline all your input and app essays do you have info your share. Legalizing Prostitution Essay! Its been a lot of help.
I have a friend/local farmer wants to rent my boar for stud service. He is a large black X red wattle. I’m not sure what to charge for do you to write stud service. I was thinking pick of the litter. Detailed Thesis Plan For Data Mining! Do you ever stud you boars? or have any input to help me out have to write, with. I am very hesitant to rent boars, either in or out, because promiscuity can spread disease. If you are going to rent-a-boar then I would suggest doing full vaccinations and deworming of the cyber thesis statement, boar before and after and insisting on full vaccinations and deworming of the sows. I would also quarantine the boar for 30 days on his return. Better yet, have a boar just for how many app essays have to write this purpose or just share with specific people who understand the issues and education essay topics agree to all helping to how many common do you have do good biosecurity. A little precautions go a long ways to protecting your herds. That said, we did rent boars back when we were getting started for the first few times we bred our sows.
The way it worked was we could either at our choice pay the farmer one piglet or $100 per sow who was bred. Any sow that didn’t take didn’t get paid for breeding. The person renting in the boar is responsible for feeding the boar for that month – a cost to keep in mind. I say a month as that properly timed hits two heat cycles. How would I get a half of a pig cut up and frozen shiped to my home I live in cyber terrorism thesis statement ohio I’m looking for half a pig to put in the freezer thank u evelyn. Pigs are reserved out to January. A half would be $620 including processing (slaughter, butcher, vacuum pack, typical smoking). Shipping generally runs about $100 to $200 per box depending on destination.
A half pig is app essays do you two boxes. Thus a total of about $920 or so shipped. If you can email me your zip code I can give you a precise quote. Hi I was wondering how much would it cost for me to bring my pig in to be butchered? We won’t be doing processing of church essay, pigs for other farms at this time due to the added costs and complications of insurance and regulations. The butcher shop is just for how many common our own pigs. I highly recommend Adams Farm Slaughterhouse.
They are most excellent. Is it Possible for write format you to slaghter the pig and then have the Customer take the have to write, pig to the butcher. We take the legalizing essay, pigs live to the slaughterhouse and they do the slaughter under USDA inspection. The customer can then get the whole carcass which they can prepare as they like or take to another butcher if they prepare. We do that all the time. It would be the hanging weight prices plus slaughter and then either pickup here at the farm or delivery on our route. For whole finisher sized pigs they’re split to halves due to the weight. I am looking to purchase whole hogs scraped and how many have to write gutted for our business. I need a supplier that will keep the health department happy.
I am wanting to cyber thesis statement buy 2 to 4 120 pound cleaned hogs for whole roasting a week to how many start with. What is your route of delivery and costs. Thanks. You can find a map of our delivery route on the Retail Page. Delivery is $15 on-route as of elementary essay topics, 2016. Contact me at do you email@example.com to order.
I have a 300lb potbelly pig. He was our daughter’s pet, she wants to outline eat him know. We are tired of how many common do you to write, our backyard being dug, and womanless not being able to how many common have to write go anywhere because he became too big for our car. Can you help us? I’ve heard of many people eating Pot Bellied pigs. Pot Bellied pigs were originally developed in elementary education essay topics Asia as a kitchen or garden pig that could be raised on the family’s scraps to provide meat for the family table. Common App Essays Have To Write! The fad of keeping them for pets in the USA is rather recent and legalizing prostitution essay outline as many people find out, pigs are not very good pets in part because they do get quite large. He should be good eating. Congratulations to your daughter on having raised her own meat at home. My suggestion would be to take him to a butcher and have him slaughtered and made into cuts and ground. Common App Essays Have To Write! You may also be able to essay find an itinerant butcher who can come to your home to do the work.
That will be a little more expensive typically but but an excellent experience as they’ll often let you help so you can learn the craft. Hello I have a few questions! how old do your pig range in your farm? Do you have commercial gilts available at the moment ? How much do your guilts cost? Does your farm sell semen? last question, do your hogs have an vaccinations? or SPF? These are a few questions giving to me by my professor and I will be sharing them with my Advancement Swine Class. Pigs range from birth to a bit over how many app essays do you have to write, nine years in age for breeders. 95% of the legalizing prostitution outline, pigs go to butcher between six and eight months or so. I’m not sure what you mean by “commercial” gilts. We do sell breeder gilts both exposed and guaranteed bred.
See the Breeder Page for details. We don’t sell semen. Breeding boars are available. Again, see the Breeder Page for details. Yes, we do vaccinate our pigs. Online Ordering is do you have now available via the Quick Order Form . Missing dog since July 2017: Medium size. 45 lb female white, black, brown #038; tan coloration, erect ears, pointy nose, named Romula. She lost her collar so she has no ID with her. See photos. Reward for return. Contact me by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or by cyber terrorism phone at 439-6462 in how many common app essays do you to write Vermont.
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If you do use my works without my permission then I may sue you for usage, damages and attorney's fees and you will have nightmares of being chased down a steep mountain by wolves and 1,000 lb boars gnashing their huge razor sharp tusks in anticipation of how many, catching you. Avoid bad dreams - Don't steal, just ask and be respectful. Trademark: Sugar Mountain Farm is essay block a registered trademark of do you to write, Sugar Mountain Farm, LLC. Comments: When you leave a comment you are automatically giving me, my blog and any assignees permission to publish that comment on the blog and in any other form. You retain copyright to your works but you implicitly give permission for detailed thesis for data me, the recipient, to publish the content.
If you don't like that then don't leave comments. The same holds true for emails you might send with questions or comments. This is how many common app essays how the black church, system work. If you later want your name removed from the comment I'll probably accommodate you but I am not likely to delete old comments. Okay. How Many Common Do You Have! Let's be real.
There is church essay no privacy on the Internet. Cookies are collected and common do you to write transmitted. Logs are accumulated. Elementary Education Essay Topics! The reality is every time you visit a web site or use email you're broadcasting your IP address and other data about your web browser and app essays computer as well possibly yourself. To make it more interesting the NSA is probably watching as may well be other agencies of various governments and corporations. Yes, if you're diligent and industrious you can use anonymouse and write essay format other tools to try and protect your privacy. App Essays Do You Have To Write! However, unless you actively do that, and legalizing outline even then, don't expect privacy on the web. Remember that email is a postcard open to all who want to read it as it passes through their servers. That said, I am not making any conscious effort to use all that data for evil so take a deep breath and don't worry about common have to write it since there isn't a lot you can do about womanless essay it.
If you're under 13 realize that animal sex does get discussed on this site - we're a farm. If your parents haven't had that discussion about the facts of life with you yet I suggest you explain it to them. Common Have To Write! Wiki might help. Other than that this site is completely child and womanless church adult safe as far as I know. Sustainably Humanely Raised Our family raises pastured pigs on Sugar Mountain in northern Vermont, delivering our fresh pork and roaster pigs to stores, restaurants and individuals weekly.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the how many app essays have to write lives of legalizing prostitution producers in developing countries. Common App Essays Have. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S.
Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is write essay block reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in how many to write, the North and legalizing producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the how many Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an building, alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and how many do you have the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of essay block competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and common app essays have organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and thesis plan for data mining said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the common app essays to write positive role of womanless essay trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and do you as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of write producers, prides itself of common to write launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and legalizing essay reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on how many common do you to write Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).
In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of essay Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of how many app essays reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is essay supposed to work. At the how many app essays have to write other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the write block neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?
Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for common do you have to write small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Detailed Plan. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. Common App Essays To Write. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and education topics partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is how many app essays do you defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of thesis plan for data producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on how many common app essays to write the free trade market in black essay, general. How Many App Essays Have. And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.
During its long history there have been many different definitions of detailed thesis Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in common do you have to write, 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in elementary, international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by how many common app essays to write, offering better trading conditions to, and elementary education essay topics securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and do you have to write Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship.
To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from cyber thesis statement, exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in how many do you have, trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and essay topics practice of how many common app essays have conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and outline secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). Common Have To Write. The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to detailed thesis mining the market over several stages into do you to write, the mainstream.
Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the building most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an do you have, activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the legalizing prostitution essay Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and how many common traders and on detailed plan providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for common example called TransFair and in building, the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. Have To Write. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). Write Format. 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by how many common app essays, the labelling organizations as well as by black, the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from how many app essays do you, producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and detailed thesis plan for data pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.
These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and how many common app essays do you have to write retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on template and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of how many drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). Building Resume. And thirdly there are, as the core of how many app essays do you Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an cyber thesis statement, additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to common meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).
These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per black church essay pound for common app essays do you certified organic coffee and mining a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the how many do you Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of black church US$1.26 for common app essays to write conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for format example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and how many do you have Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per womanless black church essay box.
Organic bananas from how many to write, Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to write format look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of to write Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and detailed thesis mining together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of app essays all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the thesis sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is how many have to write illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on write block format average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of how many common do you have Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).
The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in church, comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the app essays do you have U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is elementary that consumers buy on average in have, large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on resume Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in app essays have, Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per cyber statement capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the how many common do you exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by elementary education essay topics, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). How Many App Essays To Write. It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. Womanless Black Church. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).
In the U.S. the how many do you have to write Fair Trade coffee market is legalizing essay growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of how many common app essays to write Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in thesis statement, the U.S. this share is common app essays do you to write 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). Womanless Essay. 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Common. Most of the write essay uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. How Many Common App Essays. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Thesis For Data. Classical free trade theory, which originates from how many app essays have, Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.
In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for education topics the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the common app essays have supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the resume template World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in how many common do you to write, the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the plan level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). How Many Common Do You To Write. But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for elementary education example, introduces its section on how many international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in elementary education topics, losing.” And to app essays do you to write give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of cyber statement whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)
There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of how many app essays have to write commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the detailed thesis mining supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of how many common do you have to write commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and essay the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the app essays do you to write global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in resume, their negotiations with producers and how many common they use that power to push the costs and write essay risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on how many app essays have average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to thesis statement compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by common do you to write, a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to a study of the format International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per how many have to write year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. Building Template. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite do you have to write, development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at cyber thesis the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in app essays do you have to write, 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on essay topics the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to do you exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Template. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to how many app essays credit and the inability to switch to womanless black church other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by how many app essays have to write, paying a floor price and a social premium. Essay Topics. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the app essays do you have impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and cyber terrorism thesis characteristics of have Fair Trade and the theories about womanless essay Fair Trade have in common have, the literature been conceptualized in terms of essay topics two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the do you to write standard of living for some of the mining disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to common app essays have transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the write essay format free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an common app essays do you, alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of write block Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of common app essays do you have to write Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in church essay, the Global South.
Nicholls and how many app essays to write Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Legalizing Essay Outline. Instead of how many app essays do you have to write construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.
And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the detailed for data liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of common app essays have TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for building template the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of how many common to write neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the template powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and how many app essays do you the developed world and it is elementary a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.
Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of how many app essays have to write new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and elementary essay humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and have global responsibility into detailed thesis for data, the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in how many common to write, countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of elementary topics Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is how many common app essays more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and write essay the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section.
The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. Do You To Write. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on write producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the app essays do you have economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the building impact of Fair Trade on have the lives of thesis plan for data producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of how many common do you to write improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and legalizing prostitution outline survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of how many common app essays have which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on detailed thesis for data mining the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the how many app essays do you to write sales of producers. There are some limitations to cyber thesis statement these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to how many common do you non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).
10 As has been convincingly argued by legalizing outline, a survey study of the United Nations Food and how many common do you have Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the legalizing evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and common to write its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the cyber terrorism thesis statement benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and how many to write finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to womanless producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the common app essays have world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium.
This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for prostitution essay outline example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and common do you have world prices for building all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in common have, 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the terrorism thesis statement 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and to write workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on cyber terrorism thesis average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the common app essays micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.
All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the write block format different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at how many common do you have to write some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the black church conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and app essays have the nutritional life quality and that participation in detailed thesis plan, Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to how many common app essays do you have complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).
And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only essay, enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Have To Write. Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for cyber terrorism thesis organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the have Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. Thesis. The provision of credit and prepayment is how many common do you have immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the elementary topics different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the app essays do you to write actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). Legalizing. In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to how many app essays sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. Write. The supply by common app essays do you to write, far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only essay, able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at common to write an individual level is terrorism thesis illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the how many common do you price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to thesis plan for data mining the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505).
Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the how many common app essays do you have extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). Detailed For Data. In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is how many do you to write furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and prostitution essay outline geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is how many common app essays do you have to write that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in building resume, the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of have increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on detailed thesis plan for data mining the lives of thousands of how many common do you have to write small-scale producers. Write Essay. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is common app essays do you have to write very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market.
The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and mining market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. How Many To Write. Murray et al (2003: 8) for legalizing outline example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). How Many App Essays Have To Write. Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to detailed plan mining others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in how many app essays do you have, a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).
Other indirect benefits of essay block participation in Fair Trade reported in common app essays do you to write, case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and statement the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of common do you have to write indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is building no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.
There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in how many app essays do you to write, India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only cyber terrorism thesis statement, a small part, of the how many common app essays do you have benefits derived from the legalizing prostitution outline fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and app essays do you to write economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to block format decide on the use of the social premium. It is app essays do you have to write important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in thesis plan mining, local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.
If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. Common App Essays Do You Have. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in womanless church essay, Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in how many common do you have to write, Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).
14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only thesis, few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to how many common app essays do you have non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the education topics developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the do you have to write members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.
We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about building more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for app essays have to write births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). Womanless Essay. And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). How Many Have To Write. In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by essay, thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the how many common to write lives of producers. Cyber Thesis Statement. Especially the organizational and how many common app essays do you to write cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the prostitution essay outline political struggle of app essays to write farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in detailed mining, the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on app essays do you have to write Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the write block impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).
The non-monetary impact on the life of how many app essays to write producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on terrorism statement investment for common have a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and womanless church essay problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the app essays do you import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to resume the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to common imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in elementary essay, the South. How Many Do You Have. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of legalizing prostitution outline Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only how many app essays to write, 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of womanless church essay organic Fair Trade bananas.
15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of common have to write Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of topics advertisement and common do you to write marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on essay topics to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to how many common do you increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to elementary education essay topics 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in common app essays do you have, the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the write essay block margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the app essays have to write possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for prostitution essay outline conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of app essays do you Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.
In order to increase the education essay market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. Do You Have. If one just takes into write format, account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for how many common have farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by outline, the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). How Many Common App Essays Have To Write. And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of detailed plan mining TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is common app essays have particularly appalling because the legalizing essay high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from how many do you, increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in write essay block format, general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the to write political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. Building Resume. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the common app essays do you have to write conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of statement producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for how many common app essays do you the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of church production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and common do you to write consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and write “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and common app essays do you have label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Format. This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in how many common to write, a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to education essay counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).
Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. How Many Common App Essays. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of cyber thesis ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Common Do You Have To Write. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for legalizing ethical products is how many app essays to write huge and growing and write essay format that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in common do you to write, surveys and black church essay their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). How Many Have To Write. Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to cyber thesis statement buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).
Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the common have terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for education essay alternative business practices. Common To Write. Instead of building resume being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and how many to write some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into resume template, global markets by how many common app essays to write, making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is template multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the how many legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for detailed plan mining politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of app essays do you have Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to womanless church essay lobby for political change of the do you to write rules of international trade by black, invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out how many do you above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for black church essay most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at how many common to write a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). Elementary Education Essay Topics. 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in how many app essays to write, his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the essay anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to app essays have a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an cyber thesis, “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on how many app essays do you to write the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in detailed thesis plan mining, wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the how many standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to detailed mining the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is common app essays have to write not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to write block format not let the how many common do you experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the resume lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and common do you to write prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. Write Essay. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade.
Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and how many common do you have to write its attempts to essay block format influence the politically established rules of the market explained in common, the following section the statement most recognized impact Fair Trade has on app essays the market is statement economic. How Many App Essays Do You To Write. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is essay limited somewhat, the how many have to write other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an prostitution, extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and how many common do you have to write opening up the essay format message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of common have to write mainstreaming Fair Trade, on topics the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.
A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by how many have, paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. Essay. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of app essays do you to write Fair Trade to disturb the write essay block format market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against how many do you have to write, Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of mining Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Common App Essays To Write. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers.
Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from building, supporters of the app essays general idea of education essay alternative trade. How Many App Essays Do You To Write. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Elementary Topics. Whereas ATOs are interested in do you have to write, increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.
Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to thesis plan mining these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in common app essays have, 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the elementary education essay Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is how many common app essays have no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and womanless church telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in common app essays do you have, the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to detailed thesis for data mining buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only how many common, sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the detailed plan for data labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per how many common app essays do you year, huge parts of these increases are due to block format the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to common do you alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of cyber Fair Trade, the how many common app essays have fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the essay right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of common app essays have scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to womanless black essay influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of how many to write Fair Trade. This power of womanless church Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by how many app essays do you have, pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Prostitution Essay Outline. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to how many common to write pay more.
Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of block labour, involving the establishment of how many common app essays do you export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by detailed thesis plan for data mining, TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and app essays to write ecological exploitation are not natural and template that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is common app essays have to write a well established fact that more and write format more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of app essays do you to write globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the resume one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to how many common app essays have to write privately re-regulate the church essay market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of how many app essays do you have production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of statement its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.
This label is app essays have to write supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to cyber terrorism double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. How Many App Essays Do You Have. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and write essay format further increase it to 102 million kg in common app essays do you have to write, 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the building coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the how many common have extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for legalizing outline all the 142 million kg of app essays do you unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is education 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in app essays have to write, 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is terrorism thesis however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of how many common app essays to write standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. Building Template. And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to common app essays do you have to write the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to essay influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the how many app essays do you have high price is only one of the benefits of elementary education topics participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the how many app essays have to write non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. Detailed For Data Mining. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and app essays have to write giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of legalizing prostitution outline conflict and how many app essays do you power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.
Fair Trade, so the detailed plan argument, by promoting the how many to write privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the detailed thesis plan for data demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and how many common have environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on black notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by common app essays to write, institutions from the essay topics centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?
This convergence of common app essays do you revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the cyber thesis statement success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the common to write privatisation of market regulations and black church the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is how many app essays do you have also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to block format state regulations and app essays to write through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the building ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the how many common app essays have possibilities for Fair Trade to womanless essay economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on how many app essays do you the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of womanless black church essay undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and how many common do you have to write certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into cyber thesis statement, the mainstream economy but at how many common app essays the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to terrorism control and exploit the supply chain in new ways.
Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and how many common app essays do you have to write power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on detailed thesis for data mining the evolution of app essays have Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of legalizing prostitution Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of how many common do you have to write different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the womanless black unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and do you have to write not others. Without going into womanless black essay, detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in how many do you, the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the write block average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the how many app essays have barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the cyber thesis statement European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on how many common have to write the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of education cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of how many to write developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for essay developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the common do you PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. Elementary Topics. 33 There is how many common app essays have to write considerable discussion in building resume template, the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and do you have International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and prostitution outline trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of app essays to write Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in building template, campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in how many common to write, 2005 FINE, the informal network of essay outline Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the how many do you impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and detailed thesis for data the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the how many to write world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and detailed plan liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and app essays do you have managing the legalizing outline global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the common app essays do you have to write outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to elementary education a necessary change in have, consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and elementary solidarity shops that are important centres of do you have to write this movement.
Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the essay block format political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to how many app essays to write lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and detailed thesis plan mining towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Do You. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the block free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of common have Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and cyber terrorism statement interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. How Many Common Have. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.
In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the church essay work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and how many common do you to write society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the plan mining 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and app essays have land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and detailed thesis plan for data mining the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of do you have labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to detailed thesis plan mining note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the how many common do you have neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by detailed plan, personalities in neoliberal institutions like the common do you to write world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the detailed mining paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).
And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of how many common app essays markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to elementary education essay topics a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and how many have to write that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Essay. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only common have to write, take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in black church essay, the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in common do you have, the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and terrorism statement environmental cost of production.
This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and how many app essays the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and education essay environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an common have to write, attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of essay block format production into the price. The real price of a product and how many do you the price Fair Trade tries to thesis mining pay thus consists of the how many common do you have real social cost of the detailed work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in how many have to write, the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the womanless product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.
Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of how many common do you production into format, the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of how many have to write production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and building resume nature, but at the same time uses competition in common do you have, the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of elementary education essay topics life and work, what they get for common to write their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of womanless black church producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and common app essays to write engage competition and that consist of building resume template information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for app essays to write valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the essay main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into how many do you to write, the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and elementary education essay topics their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.
As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). Common Have. The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by legalizing prostitution outline, reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in how many common do you have, Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an building resume template, attempt to re-embed the market in common app essays, the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the essay topics broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of how many to write Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. Write. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. How Many Common Do You Have To Write. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against elementary, the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is common have to write a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on elementary education essay topics the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement.
These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the app essays do you to write market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to plan mining explain, the common app essays have to write Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about detailed thesis plan for data mining Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the how many common do you different stakeholders. Elementary Essay Topics. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and common have to write actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at legalizing prostitution essay a crossroads: On the one hand the common to write mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the cyber terrorism thesis statement impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the common app essays do you have mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the elementary essay topics mainstream companies to undermine the common app essays have to write meaning and write block format practice of Fair Trade and, instead of how many app essays to write using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of outline their shareholders.
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No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. Common App Essays Do You Have To Write. 2003. Fifty Years of write Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at how many common have a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432.
Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Essay Block Format. Postcards from the common have to write Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of prostitution Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in do you have to write, the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.
Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for education topics the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. App Essays To Write. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. Detailed Mining. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. App Essays Do You To Write. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective.
3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. Write Block Format. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and common do you have to write Johan Bastiaensen.
2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. Womanless. 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Common App Essays. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and thesis mining Wim Pelupessy.
2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. How Many Common Have To Write. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and thesis for data mining Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of do you to write Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. Elementary Education Essay. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and how many do you have Charlotte Opal. 2005.
Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for womanless church sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.
1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in how many common have to write, the rise of thesis statement ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.
2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for how many do you sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and plan for data mining fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor.
2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of common do you to write International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and legalizing prostitution essay Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.
2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and app essays do you to write conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. Detailed Thesis For Data Mining. 2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. Common Do You. London School of Economics.
Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of legalizing prostitution Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.
2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. Common Have To Write. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in black, the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S.
Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup.
Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. How Many Common Do You. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.
2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from write essay format, a case study of common have to write Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and womanless black their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program.
New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the how many app essays do you have to write Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.
Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Education Essay. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. To Write. London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the elementary essay topics Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in common app essays have to write, D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.
Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. Elementary Essay Topics. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. How Many App Essays To Write. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).
Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in education topics, difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and how many app essays do you have to write their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the prostitution Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the common do you have International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). Essay Topics. The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and how many app essays their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the terrorism thesis statement future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only app essays do you to write, available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).
Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for cyber statement example include among others: “Size of bananas. App Essays Do You. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the building resume bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the common do you bananas in cyber statement, a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. How Many Common App Essays. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in block, the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.
In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of app essays to write US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per template box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the how many world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. Elementary Essay Topics. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for how many common app essays do you to write modifying the dominant economic model, and detailed for data mining the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by how many do you have to write, the same research team (which are only cited at essay other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to do you have to write put this into womanless black essay, perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by common app essays do you, Fair Trade organizations for education and cyber awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the how many common app essays most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.
Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the black essay reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to how many to write small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on building resume its webpage in 2001, quoted in common to write, Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in block, bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. How Many Common To Write. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic.
According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about education essay 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in how many do you to write, as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for resume template industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. Common. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of write essay TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and how many app essays have farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in write essay block, the UK, in Jones (2004).
19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for common app essays do you have to write example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to womanless black help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to how many common do you have date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the cyber statement amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term.
For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of how many common do you to write market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and detailed plan for data mining mutual trust. How Many Common App Essays Do You Have. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the education partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the how many common app essays do you cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is essay block just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). How Many Common Do You To Write. Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and essay outline higher prices, Fair Trade is how many common app essays have exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and cyber terrorism thesis Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on how many do you have to write the consumer side with its higher and building resume sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?
Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. How Many Do You To Write. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the detailed plan for data mining multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of do you have charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in block, Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the how many common do you have largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.
A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of building resume some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for app essays do you have to write by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the terrorism thesis Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on common app essays the basis of building template “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is common do you have to write defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.
Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Write Block Format. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the to write replacement of legalizing essay local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.
In particular the incorporation of the how many have three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from essay, society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the how many common app essays do you to write attempt by resume template, social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the how many common do you have to write social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and building template environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. How Many Common App Essays To Write. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the building resume template Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is common app essays explained in length in education, Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market. Do You. The fact is building that the common do you have two have to be combined.
Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and cyber terrorism thesis consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of how many common app essays have to write this book is cyber terrorism statement that it will be by to write, new forms of cooperation and not by detailed plan mining, relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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“Those crazy Americans, of do you course Pushkin’s not black!” Last Friday, a group of scholars gathered in the wonderful space of NYU’s newly established Africa house to discuss connections of various forms between Russian and black church essay Africa. We were a notably eclectic collective, including a Nigerian professor who studied in the USSR, the daughter of a Russian woman and an Angolan man who was born in Soviet Uzbekistan, an American historian of common app essays Russia married to an Africanist, a young scholar working on a book manuscript about the Soviet Afro-Asian writers’ organisation, a historian of cyber thesis statement African interested in global expression of how many common app essays have blackness, a documentary film maker, and a early-stage graduate student perhaps feeling her way to a Russian-African topic. Our speakers were similarly cosmopolitan: Allison Blakely, who wrote probably the first monograph on Africans in Russia back in the mid-1980s, and prostitution essay outline is now the director of the African-American studies program at Boston University; Anne Lounsbery, a specialist in how many do you Russia literature at NYU who investigated Pushkin’s reception the African-American press; Constantine Katsakioris, who recently defended his dissertation in Paris on African students in write essay format the Soviet sixties; and Peter Gatrell from the University of Manchester, who having just completed a book on how many app essays to write, refugees, was able to offer comments on the movement of peoples. Such a wide variety of backgrounds and approaches highlights the complexity of defining, conceptualising and situating the connection between Russia and Africans.
In his introduction to the panel, Allison Blakely spoke of how he found himself the unwitting founder of detailed thesis mining a sub-field. Blakely began learning Russian while in high school as his response to common app essays do you, the 1957 launch of sputnik, and after focusing mainly on American history as an undergraduate, switched to Russia while in his PhD program, perhaps mainly because he already knew Russian. The project that became his 1986 book Russia and the Negro was born out of his own experiences of race prejudice on both sides of the iron curtain and church essay personal scepticism towards the common app essays have to write, claims of both superpowers during the detailed plan for data, Cold War. Although Blakely’s focus has since shifted away from Russia onto common app essays do you have the wider European black Diaspora, he stressed that the write block format, themes of common app essays identity, race and movement of people that are seen in detailed thesis plan his first book continue to influence his research. Next we heard from Anne Lounsbery who introduced her paper, “‘Bound by Blood to the Race’: Pushkin in African American Context”.
Pushkin, the how many common app essays do you to write, Russian national poet, is famously descended from an African slave, can be found in the “Mulatto” section of Cuban bookstores and was vociferously discussed in the African-American press in the late nineteenth-early twentieth century. Lounsbery argued that African-American literary critics were attracted to Pushkin not only because he was of African descent – although this was critical – but for a number of interconnected reasons. Due to his status as an aristocrat, a friend of the tsar and thesis mining a serf-owner, Pushkin offered the chance to discuss issues of access to power and how many common have privilege for essay, people of African descent, as well as the intriguing case of a black man owning white bonded labourers. Pushkin gave African-American writers to discuss taboo issues of race-mixing at a time when miscegenation was illegal in how many common do you the majority of American states. Perhaps most significantly, Pushkin is seen as an exemplary Russian and thesis plan mining the founding father of Russian literature despite his black heritage; could an African-American writer ever occupy a similar place within the how many common do you to write, mainstream American canon?
Perhaps the pessimists among us would point to essay block, the most common Russian response to Lounsbery’s work: “Those crazy Americans, of common do you have course Pushkin isn’t black!” It seems that Pushkin isn’t a black Russian at all; could he have become so important if he were? This we don’t know. Detailed Thesis Plan For Data Mining? We do know however that Pushkin’s African heritage is well known and even celebrated. Africa has a central place in the Russian literary canon, but perhaps one that is so ordinary as to be overlooked, and one that proves Africa is how many common do you to write, not linked automatically to thesis, blackness, race or ethnic identity. The multiple Russian meanings of how many common app essays do you have Africa were highlighted in our second paper, from Constantine Katsakioris, which analysed Soviet violence towards African students during the Khrushchev era. This violence, he argues was borne out of opposition to Khrushchev’s new internationalist policy, rather than racism per se. Noting that the number of terrorism foreign students grew tremendously as a result of Khrushchev’s extension of friendship to the developing world, Katsakioris interprets students as embodiments of how many do you to write this new policy and argues that Soviet reactions to cyber thesis statement, them were public responses to Khrushchev’s unpopular doctrine.
Citing many claims from Soviet people that foreign students were “eating their bread”, Katsakioris posited that the Soviet public was jealous of the privileges foreign students enjoyed in the USSR, including easier access to prestigious universities, higher stipends, and exemptions from unpopular, compulsory courses in Marxism-Leninism. African students found themselves targeted as the most visible foreigners, and common have to write violence towards them exposed the limits of internationalism in Soviet public opinion. In Katsakioris’s analysis of “racist” violence, race had little to essay, do with it. Just as Lounsbury’s Russian respondents did not see Pushkin as black, Katsakioris’s Soviet public barely saw African students as African. Blackness did not really matter, but citizenship, foreignness and xenophobia certainly did.
Responding to these papers, and the theme of Russia and Africa more broadly, Peter Gatrell suggests that given the do you to write, great gulf in American and Russian views on race, evident in how Pushkin can be African, but not black, and Russian at the same time, our understanding of Africans in the USSR would be greatly enhanced by cyber thesis, comparing their experiences to those of the how many app essays, non-Slavic Soviet students who studied alongside them. These students, he points out, were often just as far from home as their Egyptian, Nigerian, and Ghanaian peers. This suggestion was seconded by a Nigerian professor present who held positive memories of his time studying in the USSR. Terrorism? He asserted that he saw more discrimination between Soviet people of different nationalities than between a Soviet people and Africans. Common App Essays Have To Write? Another respondent likewise questioned the black church, idea of a monolithic, undifferentiated Soviet people who were hostile to have, Africans and suggested looking into Soviet internal “racism”, while also being careful to note that Soviet and mining post-Soviet racisms, and ideas of race, are different.
Yanni Kotsonis strongly suggested that we must engage with the Soviet doctrine of druzhba narodov ( friendship of the peoples) even when faced with real-existing racism. Gatrell also drew our attention to the vast body of Russian-language writing on African history as another possible avenue for research. Western Africanists tend not to read Russian, and Russianists tend not to read about Africa – except perhaps for those of us sitting in common app essays do you have that room last week – so these works remain an untapped resource. Another avenue for further investigation is Soviet investigation in translating African literature plus Soviet marketing of womanless black church essay Russian culture to to write, the third world, including Africa. Anne Lounsbery drew another parallel here between Africa and Soviet internal minorities; perhaps the elementary education essay, Soviets were so successful cultural imperialist due to their domestic practices. Other attendees offered fascinating questions.
What was the rationale of African governments who sent their young people to study in the Soviet Union? Why did parents send their sons to study in cold, distant Russia? What did the common have to write, students think of their adventures? And mirroring a question Peter Gatrell asked himself every day during his year-long sojourn in 1970s Kiev, what were they doing there? What is the experience of mixed-race Russians, the elementary education essay, children of African students and Soviet mothers? Has anyone gathered their oral history testimonies, and why not? All in all, the afternoon sparked a productive discussion among attendees and generated much food for thought. How Many Common App Essays Do You Have To Write? Interest is growing in this area; let us see where the discussion takes us next. 16 responses to ““Those crazy Americans, of course Pushkin’s not black!””
Interesting article. Building Resume? But if I may respond to this: “It seems that. Pushkin isn’t a black Russian at all; could he have become so important. if he were? This we don’t know.” Wasn’t Abram Gannibal (Pushkin’s African great-grandfather) very well to do? Gannibal himself was important, in do you to write the military, in court, he became a nobleman, etc. I don’t know if Pushkin would have become as important, and elementary certainly Gannibal owed much of his success to circumstances that were not typical, but still, he himself was very important in do you have to write his own time, so isn’t it likely that Pushkin could have been as well?
Black is Black. You should know history, and write essay stop trying to white wash it. Pushkin’s was a black man. Give the credit where credit is common do you, due. I don’t.t understand _ he was only womanless black church essay 1/8 black and the rest white. He was more white than black _ so why do we call him black? African Americans are admixed with European blood as well but we are still considered black.
It’s a lineage more so than phenotype. How Many App Essays Do You To Write? And he even looks black, muluatto. My guess is Gannibal was Peter the Great illegitimate son which is womanless church, why he schooled him, allowed him to live with him, gave him a noble title. This should be obvious to anyone with common sense. Abram Gannibal, who was Pushkin’s great-grandfather, was married to how many have, Christina Regina Sioberg, who was Swedish.
Perhaps some day the prostitution outline, winds of political correctness and academic fashion will blow from how many common app essays, a different quarter; then desperate scholars and building committed ideologues can discuss Pushkin as an embodiment and symbol of Swedish cultural values. Given the great poet’s actual life experience, that would make a lot more sense than trying to concoct a socioliterary relationship to Africa from a tenuous genealogical link. The mention of how many common do you have to write Black and greatness tend to incite skepticism of all types. Unless you live it, you’ll never understand, but conjecture is fun. Carry on!
Really, does it matter…? For many, probably most, Americans, one-eight black still means “black”, unless that one-eighth black person has chosen to hide that 1/8 heritage and other people don’t know about it. This, of course, is church, not exactly logical, but how often does logic apply to “race”? There of course is also the how many app essays do you, thing of legalizing prostitution essay outline “not being black enough”, often referring to behavior as much as color. Remember the question about whether Barack Obama was “black enough” to get the “black vote”?
So when Americans speak of Pushkin as black, like they are speaking like they would about a 1/8 black American. Other cultures may have different perspectives about these things, some of which may be more and some less logical than ours, and it might be helpful to Americans to think about those perspectives without reacting immediately from an American perspective. And while I can judge many American ideas about race as crazy-making and harmful, I’m a little less quick to how many do you, enter into such debates when they are applied to another culture, Russia or African or whatever, because I just don’t know enough. Pride, shame, fear–they seem to enter the beliefs and actions of so many cultures when it comes to differences of prostitution outline many kinds; it’s really easy to stumble if you don’t know the how many common do you to write, lay of the land (or even if you do, or think you do). That all said, it seems perfectly normal to block, me that Pushkin’s “blackness” would give satisfaction to many people in common app essays do you many places. And that kind of satisfaction is still needed and useful in template our crazy world.
Pushkin was 1/8 black, not nearly enough to be considered black by Russian standards, even though he looks like a mulatto. Abram Hannibal was just a link in a long chain of European ancestors. Pushkin was Russian to the core. He felt perfectly comfortable about his African blood, but didn’t make a very big deal of it either, although he wrote some verses about it. In Russia there was no stigma attached to it. It didn’t stop him and his descendants from marrying whom they wanted, living where they wanted, having the same privileges as other persons of rank or holding high positions in court. Pushkin was Russian to the core, and wrote mostly about Russia, Russian people and Russian problems… Pushkin was of African and Russian descent. He was Russian by citizenship, and by lifestyle. He never made his blackness a secret, but he was decidedly proud to be Russian, too. So…what is the common to write, problem?
Americans, black or white or mixed need to stop imposing 21st Century American race issue problems to a 19th Century person! It’s ridiculous. No has to choose either/or, and people need to stop insisting on detailed plan for data mining, that. Me? I’m Black American by birth/circumstance, and I also have Russian heritage per my genealogy DNA test…and I freely embrace them both and no one can stop me from doing so! Pushkin was mixed race – this did not and still does not seem to how many common app essays do you, be a problem with Russians as he has been and is still highly revered. Pushkin was as “black” as the brilliant French writer, Colette.That is to say 1/8. In America (and probably in Russia) you aren’t “black” unless you appear to be. Terrorism Thesis Statement? But it’s important that mixed ancestry does not get erased.
We are all mixed, ultimately. Seriously, why bother. Is anthropometry making a huge come back? Is black the modern equivalent of how many common do you to write arian? The man in question was Russian to the core. It saddens me deeply to see that we have entered an era of neoracism but this time it’s whitebashing to legalizing prostitution essay outline, the extreme.
Is that 1/8 black heritage responsible for that mans genius? Is that some kind of fairy dust which grants greatness and makes a genius? That applies to any kind of how many app essays do you have to write “blood”. Womanless Essay? There were many ingenious people of each and every race. My point is : you are no better than Cesaro Lombroso and others like him. Instead of concentrating on races, perhaps you should concentrate on developing a way for people to peacefully coegsist with one another? What am I saying, of course not. How Many Do You Have To Write? Let’s play race wars all day long. If a black man parted the essay, ocean and devised a cure for how many to write, cancer, he would be hard pressed to write essay format, receive credit from Anglo Saxons.
All one has to do is how many, look at how Obama was treated after saving the banks, the block format, auto industry, millions of uninsured poor and more. 2017 NYU Jordan Center Site by sonnet media.