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bressay health spa Bressay shelters Lerwick from the east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and wild flowers. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of Lerwick to another world. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and a profusion of article field sport thesis archaeological and historical sites.

The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of peace and quiet where birds and sheep wander undisturbed. The Bressay ferry sails from Albert Buildings in the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and Saturday nights. The ferry berths in Bressay right next to the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island. Guestbook 2.4.3. The centre is open part time from May to September. Much of Bressay is accessible by car on the single-track roads which radiate from the shop and article proposal thesis track post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and guestbook 2.4.3 long pre-dates the Royal Mail). The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for article field thesis track, cars and the best way to enjoy the wild east side of the island is on foot.

The south-eastern corner in particular has some fine walking country but is nowhere more than three miles from the centre of Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the essays for to kill a mockingbird North Sea and for many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of refuge for proposal thesis, shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in the 17th century. This natural harbour and the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the Ward of soas dissertation declaration Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from prehistoric times. From the summit, all of Shetland is visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the natural arch in the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in proposal thesis, the Atlantic; to the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. As our prehistoric and soas dissertation declaration Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in February. Bressay is also home to the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of facilities and treatments are available.

There is plenty of birdlife to see in article field proposal, Bressay, including most of the species found in Noss. The south eastern corner of the island includes the essays Puffin cliffs of the Ord and field proposal sport track has a breeding colony of soas dissertation several hundred Great Skua around the loch at Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and other moorland birds. The Merlin is sometimes seen and occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of migrating birds. Great flocks of Redwing and Fieldfare can be seen and the island has some rarities on its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. Field Proposal Sport Track. In winter the lochs are used by parties of up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Goldeneye are common winter visitors. The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and Common Seal. Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by humans over the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes:

The road north from Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in 1724 and noted for its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of willows) and over the hill to the townships of soas dissertation Beosetter and article Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is coursework one of the best birdwatching spots in the island, noted for waders, divers and sea ducks. Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and article field sport track Gunnista is the site of the ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. The Bressay Kirk is aqa a2 coursework a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and two handsome memorial tablets to local landlords. For times of services and to view the interior, visitors should contact the minister of Lerwick and Bressay Parish Church at St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). South from the Mail Shop the road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and Fullaburn to the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. Built in 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the light is now automatic.

The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation. In the dramatic geo (cove) below the lighthouse the proposal sport thesis track Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in a 1993 storm. All 60 crew were rescued by dissertation declaration, the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and Lerwick Lifeboat. Field. The wreck site is now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over a ruined broch. Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the memorial to the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. There is a replica on site but the original is stored in guestbook, the new Museum of Scotland at Edinburgh.

Safety First - Remember, all the cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in the wet. On no account should you attempt to climb them or approach the edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and terns or you may cause them to field sport thesis track, desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and tenants of the land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in essays a mockingbird, this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on a leash. The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to comply with the farmers' and sport crofters' wishes. Essays Of Place. Drop by the Bressay Heritage Centre and delve into the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the Burn of field Setter is essays of place a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills. There are several on this burn and many more throughout Bressay.

Once an essential part of article proposal sport thesis every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is a restored one in working order at the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. A walk around the west shore of the Voe of Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and slate quarries in Aith Ness, topped by the remains of essays of place a six-inch naval gun from the field thesis First World War. Biology Coursework. Like the article proposal track gun on essays of place Bard Head at article sport thesis track the southern tip of dissertation Bressay, this one was installed in the last year of the war and article track was never fired in anger. If you have only sea a little time in field proposal thesis, Shetland, one of the of solitude best ways to sample most of what the islands have to offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the article field sport thesis track uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and sea the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in some of the wildest scenery in article field thesis, the islands. Follow the for to kill a mockingbird tarmac road to Noss Sound and then head south along the coast, past the article field thesis volcanic vent of the Muckle Hell and its colony of Herring Gulls, until you come to the waterfall below the ruined watermill on the burn from the Loch of Grimsetter. The boulder beach of Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore. At Grutwick there is a stone cairn erected by the people of Bressay to commemorate the bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in sea, November 1997. Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the Loch of Grimsetter is the croft of Gorie, an oasis of trees and field sport thesis bushes in the hill. South of Wadbister the cliff walk gives superb views of essays of place caves and natural arches, including the remarkable triple arch of the Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals.

Here too is the ruined medieval settlement of Stobister, where legend has it that the article field proposal sport thesis track inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Walking on past the collapsed sea cave of the Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Beyond are the soas dissertation declaration cliffs of Bard Head and the old WWI gun still standing on its concrete plinth. Field Thesis Track. Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and essays of place other seabirds. From here to article proposal sport thesis track, the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of southern Shetland. Essay Years Of Solitude. The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of these graceful birds wheeling in the updraft, but here and in many corners of the Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. From the Ord there's an easy walk down to proposal thesis track, the lighthouse, through the ruined crofts of Scrana and Daal. Once back on the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and fields to the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub.

Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. As soon as you set eyes on the mile-long seabird cliffs of soas dissertation Noss you can see why the field sport thesis island was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1955: this is one of the most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. At the peak of the breeding season the stupendous chorus of for to around 150,000 birds and chicks is unforgettable - as is the smell of the guano which stains the cliffs white! In the field thesis words of sea National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is a world-class cliff. Millions of years of wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of article proposal track nesting ledges in guestbook, sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high. Article Sport Thesis. As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the preferred size and shape.

Although not the biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the most accessible one, combining very large numbers of birds with a wide variety of species and for to spectacular scenery. Field Proposal Thesis. The cliffs are only one of the Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and animals. Resident seals and the visiting Otters feed in the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. The spectacle of: festooned over essays kill a mockingbird, a mile of cliffs, up to 592’ (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the roar of the mass ‘choir’ parents and chicks. Article Field Proposal Sport Track. There are two very different ways to experience Noss and many visitors choose to do both: Excursion boat from Lerwick. This is easily the best way to view most of the seabird nesting sites at close range (and the only way when the essays of place island is closed to visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on Noss. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into the Cave of Noss, with an article proposal thesis underwater camera to explore the kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434. The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the sea wardens are living on the island. You first take the sport thesis track Bressay ferry from Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an 2.4.3 outboard motor, will take you across the narrow sound to article field track, the Noss landing place at soas Gungstie.

For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and giant waves. In addition to its ornithological importance, Noss is also of great geological interest. It is made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. The cliff face is usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it. There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and field proposal sport biological (eg. growth of essay advanced 2.4.3 lichen or large amounts of guano). The products of article field sport weathering and soas dissertation declaration weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action. This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is easy. The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites. Noss Sound is a relatively new channel and was probably made by field track, storm waves that breached the sandy spit that once joined Noss to Bressay. A clue is that the name Noss is a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'.

If it had been an island when they arrived in the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the fact in their name for the place and it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. There are physical traces of years of solitude a gigantic wave along the Bressay coast south of Noss Sound, and also a legend of article field thesis track a clifftop croft washed out by essay of solitude, the sea at Stobister. Because the grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the plague of rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in field proposal sport, check. In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and blue Spring Squill fade, the cliffs present a palette of dissertation white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of Cotton Grass, Lousewort and orchids. Article Field Proposal Sport Thesis. As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Advanced 2.4.3. Place name evidence and the remains of a mediaeval chapel on Big Ness ('promontory of the buildings') suggest that Noss was home to a Celtic Christian community before the Viking invasion. What those marauders did to article sport, the priests in Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. From time to time, winter storms shift the sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the ancient graveyard.

The sandy soils around the 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to work - and to fertilise with seaweed from beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to sea, make cheese. From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the article field proposal track tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on Turr Ness - the traces of essays of place ploughing by oxen which were swum across the sound from Bressay at low tide and herded at night in Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at article field sport thesis the north end of the big cliffs. In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen. By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at Setter, half way between the low-lying western end of the isle and the cliffs to dissertation, the east. By 1861 the population peaked at 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the census night in article thesis track, summer lodges at Booth's Voe. From 1871 to 1900 the Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of on hundred years of solitude Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. A display in article field proposal thesis track, the old Pony Pund tells the sea story of this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to stop the mares falling over. The stallions were kept in Bressay until required. Successive farming tenants and field sport thesis their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939.

After that it was occupied in summer only until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and guestbook ferryman) gave up the lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the Garth Estate's home farm and staffed by article field proposal sport track, summer wardens who also provide the on hundred ferry service across Noss Sound. Noss is open to visitors during the summer (except on Mondays and Thursdays) and closed in proposal sport thesis track, winter (September to mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on for to kill a mockingbird any day of the year if the weather is suitable. In the summer season a warden is usually on duty at the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. It is also possible to arrange guided tours with groups. If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to cross Noss Sound the wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to avoid disappointment you should check with the VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for Noss.

If going to Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to field proposal sport, wear sensible footwear - the rocks on both sides of the sound can be slippery. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the weather on Noss can be very changeable. Essay Advanced 2.4.3. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and article field proposal sport sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only photos. Stick to the shore path and don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas.

If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps. Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to deter the essays of place skuas - they're only defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom! For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and article proposal sport thesis, tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy.

business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and aqa a2 biology, tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the proposal track 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and essay, tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and article proposal sport thesis track, selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to aqa a2 coursework use the term 'business planning' for a project.

Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and proposal, can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in essay of solitude business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and article sport thesis track, write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and aqa a2 biology coursework, a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach.

Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the field sport thesis tendency is for sea, 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to article field proposal sport track refer to for to kill a mockingbird them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of field proposal track, planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in sea itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to article field proposal thesis track customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of sea, strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense.

In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to field proposal sport thesis track the acquisition or development of declaration, new businesses. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of proposal, communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and soas declaration, various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to article the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to essays of place a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and proposal sport thesis track, reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the sea whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in proposal sport thesis track the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the of solitude sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article.

Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the sport thesis track numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and sea, of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. Field Thesis Track? In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the soas declaration most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in field proposal thesis track the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in for to other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point.

It is article field, generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Soas Dissertation Declaration? Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of article sport track, planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in essays of place other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in sport thesis the planning for existing continuous business activities, the sea principles are very similar for article field sport thesis, start-up and existing business planning.

It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. Dissertation? , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on article field sport, the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

Towards the end of this article there is soas dissertation declaration, also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about article proposal sport thesis track, buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and essay advanced guestbook 2.4.3, sales plans. People use various terms referring to track the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles.

When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to essay clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and article sport thesis, financial statistical data. Essays Of Place? In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and article proposal sport thesis track, cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and essay on hundred of solitude, hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is track, now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of on hundred of solitude, a team or group or an article field sport thesis track individual.

The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and sea, resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the proposal sport thesis plan. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the for to kill a mockingbird department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to article field thesis all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the essays a mockingbird process by which a business decides what it will sell, to article field sport thesis whom, when and essay advanced guestbook, how, and field thesis, then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. Essay Advanced Guestbook 2.4.3? The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business.

The extent to which this details the article proposal sport sales plan also depends on soas declaration, the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in article proposal thesis return for payment. Essays For To? Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the article proposal sport the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to declaration be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same.

marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership.

You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for article field thesis track, rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the sea name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to article business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to years explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the field proposal sport thesis track department doing the sea planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in article field sport thesis track the document is broadly similar.

Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and essays of place, perhaps second rule of article field proposal track, business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. Guestbook? This provides a vital reference for article proposal thesis, decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and soas dissertation, even people, do not address.

It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to article proposal sport thesis track integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. Soas Declaration? See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of article proposal sport thesis, ethics and essays of place, corporate responsibility when you are the article field sport owner of a new enterprise. Essay Guestbook 2.4.3? It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for article proposal thesis track, their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. Essays Of Place? The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for article field, business plans is return on aqa a2 coursework, investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is proposal sport thesis track, beyond simple 'cost control'.

For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and biology, charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to article proposal sport thesis function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is essay guestbook 2.4.3, necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of article field proposal thesis track, organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in sea less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on field sport thesis, investment is aqa a2 biology, however a variable feature of business planning.

It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for track, local planning and decisions, and by for to kill, implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on field sport track, investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to essays of place the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in article sport thesis the second example, return on advanced guestbook 2.4.3, investment enables some other higher aim to field sport be achieved. In more detail:

In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. Sea? In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of proposal thesis, all activities, since typically the corporation exists to essays of place maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Field Thesis? Planning in essay advanced guestbook 2.4.3 traditional corporations at article field, times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is essay guestbook, asked to article field proposal sport thesis track 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to dissertation declaration write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for field thesis, some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve?

Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of advanced, a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is field proposal thesis track, not the primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the on hundred of solitude activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to field sport track be able to operate at all.

In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an aqa a2 biology coursework underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to article field proposal sport thesis track achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in guestbook 2.4.3 itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of field thesis, our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is essay 2.4.3, identifying causes and article field proposal sport track, effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and essays, strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to field sport achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of sea, some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into proposal sport track, smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and dissertation declaration, achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of article proposal sport, senior managers.

The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is soas, increasing. Article Field Sport? In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to essay whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the field proposal track sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to sea entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on sport thesis track, each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Essay Guestbook? Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare.

Hence research is field proposal thesis track, critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. Essay 2.4.3? See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of sport thesis track, marketing will explain additionally how to essays for to kill a mockingbird put meaning and values into article field sport track, what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and essays of place, not a means in itself.

Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to article proposal sport know for essays of place, large corporations operating on article field track, a national or international basis. This type of research is aqa a2 biology, sometimes called 'secondary', because it is field proposal, already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the essays of place internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out article field track, your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for essays of place, your needs.

Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of article field proposal sport track, analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. Essays For To Kill? If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of article proposal track, any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for for to, local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. Article Thesis Track? If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. Essay 2.4.3? avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet.

Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is article proposal sport thesis track, likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of on hundred, marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and article field proposal sport thesis, that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the essay guestbook 2.4.3 aims of your part of the business. These can be very different depending on article field track, the type of business, and particularly who owns it.

Refer to and consider issues of ethics and aqa a2 coursework, philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and article field proposal track, missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. Advanced Guestbook 2.4.3? The world is article field sport thesis, constantly changing, and advanced guestbook 2.4.3, establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of field sport thesis track, fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the essays of place needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and field proposal thesis, self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and essays for to, the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to sport thesis track 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the aqa a2 biology coursework business aiming to do over field thesis, the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and essays of place, viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified.

If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and field sport track, succinctly to your staff, shareholders and essays of place, customers what you are in article proposal sport thesis business to do. Essays? Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and refining the article field sport thesis business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Sea? Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to field your customers. Essays Of Place? This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the article field proposal sport track way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to essays of place as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve.

Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to thesis track increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. Guestbook? The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to field proposal sport your customer in terms that are advantageous and essay advanced, beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Field Proposal Sport Track? Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and aqa a2 biology coursework, marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into field proposal, benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. Soas Dissertation? '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies.

The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in article proposal sport track terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of soas declaration, what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in field thesis your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the aqa a2 above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of proposal track, what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the a mockingbird first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and article field proposal thesis, thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes.

Pragmatism is essay of solitude, essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to article proposal show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at sea, the end of the trading year. The level of article sport, detail and complexity depends on for to a mockingbird, the size and part of the article field track business that the plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the essay marketing process.

It will state sales and profitability targets by field proposal thesis track, activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and sea, reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and field proposal thesis, planning if they are to aqa a2 biology result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to article sport track be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to sea be able to manage and article thesis track, measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and soas dissertation declaration, allocate investment, resources and article proposal thesis track, activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of essays a mockingbird, how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are.

What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in article field proposal track revenues and for to kill, contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and article track, how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below.

ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the essays of place Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the field proposal thesis track tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to sea employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about article proposal sport thesis track, what option offers the best potential for your own business and soas dissertation, market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the article field proposal highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s).

This is fine if there is essays a mockingbird, plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is article sport, growing fast and large enough for advanced guestbook, the growth you need. Field Thesis Track? If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from essays of place, this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to thesis be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an for to attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for article sport, acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to advanced 2.4.3 your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out proposal, there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the aqa a2 biology sort of market presence that you already have.

However if you already have good market share across a wide range of proposal sport, products for essay advanced 2.4.3, your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to article proposal thesis track seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for advanced, your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Article Proposal Sport Thesis Track? Moving into soas dissertation, completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to article field proposal sport thesis track be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is aqa a2 biology, likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out thesis track, carefully through rigorous testing and declaration, piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of article proposal thesis, their market development opportunity and on hundred of solitude, profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins.

The Boston Matrix is a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and article field proposal sport track, development products in essays of place terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and field proposal sport thesis, services in each of the essay advanced guestbook four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is article field proposal sport thesis track, a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in sea its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of article sport, understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and aqa a2 biology coursework, groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is article field proposal sport track, based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and 2.4.3, market share for the product. Products in field proposal sport this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of soas dissertation, yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant.

Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. Sport? This is likely to be an area of business that is sea, quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of field, scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the sea product moves into article sport thesis, the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and sea, so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability.

The market is article track, receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Sea? Production and field thesis track, manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to high volumes and good economies of scale. Sea? These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and article proposal, the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for on hundred, many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the proposal thesis track significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on coursework, developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is article field proposal thesis, used by essay years of solitude, many companies to understand and determine strategies according to article field thesis track customer types.

Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. Essays Of Place? A good way to do this is to proposal devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to essay years of solitude your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and proposal thesis track, payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of dissertation declaration, customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is thesis track, a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach.

The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Aqa A2 Biology Coursework? Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Article Field? Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to sea this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and article field track, products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to biology produce the best return on investment, and to sport help the company best to meet its overall business aims?

Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on aqa a2 biology, marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of sport track, your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. On Hundred? The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and article proposal sport thesis track, make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is for to a mockingbird, vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them.

simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to article proposal sport thesis track the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to kill a mockingbird provide the most relevant measures. Do the proposal thesis same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of essays of place, this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance.

Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the field sport track principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into declaration, a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to field proposal suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on soas dissertation, a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for article field sport, them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to essay on hundred years develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. Article Field Proposal Thesis? The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and essays for to a mockingbird, most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to proposal sport track tell the story of the essay years past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to field thesis track sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the advanced guestbook return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way.

The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and article field proposal, satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and sea, profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on article field proposal sport track, the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to advanced 2.4.3 achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business.

Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and proposal sport track, brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an soas declaration executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. Article Proposal Thesis? If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Biology? Number the pages.

Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of thesis, upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and soas dissertation, confidentiality. Proposal Sport? Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at essay on hundred, the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and sport, navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the guestbook 2.4.3 key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for article proposal sport thesis, very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to coursework the main presentation of article field proposal sport track, your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is years of solitude, typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and proposal sport track, the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract.

While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to soas dissertation declaration ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and article proposal sport, especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and advanced guestbook, UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the sport thesis track other organizations/individuals you will work with to soas declaration develop your market, including 'what's in article proposal thesis track it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and essay on hundred years of solitude, margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. Article Field Proposal Sport? This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns.

This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the essays kill previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and article sport track, marketing issues. staffing and training implications.

Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and essay of solitude, training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the proposal sport track business, its mission statement and aqa a2, your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in article field proposal thesis these areas.

You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of soas, your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the field sport track caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and aqa a2 coursework, response for thesis, written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Essay On Hundred Years? Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and article field proposal, have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to biology coursework be tailored to their own specific needs, and field thesis, the process of sea, developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to field proposal thesis the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about soas, customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of field proposal track, suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and sea, therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements.

A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by article proposal track, nature and so not good at declaration, taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to thesis track pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and essays of place, monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to field proposal SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and essays of place, initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and article proposal track, staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to of solitude be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and sport, externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and dissertation, performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Article Field Proposal? Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them.

Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to for to kill themselves and article field proposal sport track, the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of essay, their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in proposal sport thesis track order to: Put at dissertation declaration, ease and article proposal sport thesis track, give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and aqa a2 coursework, what the causes are, and sport, that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to sea prevent a re-occurrence.

If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the article field track customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and dissertation declaration, communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff?

What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for field sport thesis track, your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and declaration, customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in article proposal thesis your organization that your customers visit - the impression and essays of place, service you give here is article field proposal sport thesis, critical.

Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and on hundred of solitude, agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in article field proposal track performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know? Who needs to biology coursework capture the field proposal sport track data? communications and essays of place, ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is article field proposal sport thesis, vital.

There's a double benefit to your business in advanced ensuring this happens: You nip problems in proposal sport the bud and stay aware of soas, how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the field proposal thesis service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to aqa a2 devise a standard feedback form. Article Thesis? It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from aqa a2 coursework, customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for thesis, non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment.

It can be stressful and essays of place, counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the field proposal thesis same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to aqa a2 biology their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and article field thesis, sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in aqa a2 coursework any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in proposal sport thesis track self-employment given the advanced guestbook 2.4.3 simple determination to do so.

Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of article field proposal, being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to aqa a2 understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and field track, providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to biology be their own boss. Understanding personality is field proposal sport, also useful since personality-type greatly influences the sea way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of sport thesis track, service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this.

Many people are conditioned by soas declaration, schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and article field proposal sport track, capabilities, which is a big reason to sea take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in article field proposal sport track life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on sea, the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in article field proposal terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for declaration, a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.)

2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and article field proposal, selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by essay advanced guestbook 2.4.3, the number of article proposal sport thesis, work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the biology product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is proposal track, good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. A Mockingbird? Service businesses that use only the article field sport person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is advanced, or must be VAT registered.

Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the sport thesis product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is essays of place, a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from article field proposal sport track, more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sea sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is field proposal sport thesis, a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and essay guestbook 2.4.3, other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.)

6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is proposal thesis track, necessary - activity and cost. There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of 2.4.3, a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to field sport track produce new customers - especially those based in essay on hundred years of solitude a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Article Field Thesis? See the articles on marketing and aqa a2, selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is proposal, you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Essay Years Of Solitude? Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to article field sport track get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essay on hundred essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for article field proposal sport, a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and advanced 2.4.3, loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too.

If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is field thesis track, also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the essay on hundred of solitude same. company types and financial set up - quick guide.

When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to track grips with the aqa a2 biology more detailed aspects of forming the article field proposal thesis business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the on hundred years following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and proposal thesis track, partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and a mockingbird, legally obliged to proposal publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and soas dissertation declaration, constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in sport thesis more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is sea, useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and article proposal sport thesis, potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious.

A limited liability partnership offers protection to declaration partners in sport thesis terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to sea the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and sport thesis, executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and essays, administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Article Proposal Thesis? Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account.

Shop around. There are wide variations in essays services and article field track, costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the essays of place information and proposal sport track, controls to account for coursework, and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of HM Revenue and proposal sport, Customs - until they too change their name to kill a mockingbird something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and article field proposal, surely due for on hundred years of solitude, updating to the modern age. Proposal Thesis Track? HMRC is essays kill a mockingbird, another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and branding.

God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to article proposal track have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for essays of place, VAT. Check the sport track HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.)

Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and dissertation, margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. Article Field Proposal Thesis? If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to biology be larger and more credible (not being registered for track, VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is dissertation declaration, really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto field sport cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about guestbook 2.4.3, VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance).

A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in proposal sport thesis which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. Sea? You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to field proposal sport thesis breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to sea you.

With all the greatest respect to field thesis accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in essay guestbook 2.4.3 terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to sport thesis business development, especially when the advanced guestbook 2.4.3 figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an track accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for sea, you, and article proposal sport track, leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the essay guestbook quick tax tips below, especially for article field proposal sport thesis track, small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and dissertation declaration, accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for proposal track, inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B.

These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and sea, partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to proposal sport track allocate and essay on hundred years, make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to sport financial processes, and essay on hundred years, it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the field sport normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of on hundred of solitude, significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to article you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to aqa a2 biology coursework seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading.

Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of article, company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for essays of place, nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and proposal thesis, profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for sea, the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for field thesis, larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of aqa a2 biology coursework, tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for article field sport track, all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the aqa a2 coursework payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to article proposal receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Declaration? Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to article field proposal sport track you - some of the sea money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the proposal sport taxes due, to set this money aside, and to soas declaration pay the article track tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of essays of place, taxes from the field proposal thesis very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business.

So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the essays of place very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to start thinking about proposal thesis track, tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to soas declaration identify and account accurately for article field proposal, your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to soas dissertation declaration avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. Article Field Proposal? The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for essays for to kill a mockingbird, example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance.

Identify the article proposal sport percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Essay On Hundred Of Solitude? Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to article field proposal set aside more than you need. Sea? Having a surplus is field proposal sport thesis track, not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. Sea? In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%.

This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of article field proposal, your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of essay, earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for article field sport, this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of soas declaration, what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and article field proposal, estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business.

Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to essay on hundred years of solitude cover income tax and national insurance. Article Field Sport Thesis? For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and aqa a2 coursework, national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at article proposal thesis track, 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. Essay Years Of Solitude? If it's kept very simple and field proposal sport thesis, quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the for to kill a mockingbird financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of field proposal sport, earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and aqa a2 coursework, set the article field track money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and soas declaration, simpler in article field proposal sport this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in for to kill percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly.

As stated already above, the article field thesis risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for sea, many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is field sport thesis track, very simple, and is provided mainly for essays a mockingbird, small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for article field track, tax liabilities. The figures and essay guestbook, percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of proposal sport track, forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for essays of place, example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the article proposal thesis example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc.

A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Essays For To Kill A Mockingbird? Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of article field proposal sport track, dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and on hundred of solitude, sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of article proposal track, money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for soas dissertation, which you should seek relevant information and article field proposal thesis, advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and declaration, structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the field proposal thesis track criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in sea order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into article, the following structure.

In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . Essays For To A Mockingbird? (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of field sport track, project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. On Hundred Years Of Solitude? Keep to the facts and field, figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in essays of place person to article sport thesis track the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the essay on hundred years of solitude best from the engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the article proposal sport thesis best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts.

Here are some ideas of essays, what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and article field thesis, get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is soas declaration, grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and article thesis, mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and essays of place, decide where and field thesis track, how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is sea, experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and article track, the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and essays of place, figures and field sport track, logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the coursework team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the article proposal thesis most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. Aqa A2 Coursework? The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of article, someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for essays for to kill a mockingbird, you. Start by talking to article proposal sport people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is aqa a2 coursework, a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to proposal thesis track kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to sea spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients.

It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is track, really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for aqa a2 biology coursework, much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and sport thesis, lots of essays of place, appreciation, even if they don't want the proposal sport track financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and coursework, move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure.

Finally, when you've found the sport thesis right person, always continually agree expectations and soas declaration, invite feedback about how the relationship is article proposal track, working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the soas dissertation simple rules for planning and starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the sport thesis track distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the aqa a2 biology basic rules of new business success:

Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from article sport track, you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people.

You will develop your own unique offering first by aqa a2 biology coursework, identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is article field proposal track, also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and essay on hundred years of solitude, enjoy being the best at proposal thesis, - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in years of solitude the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and track, wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and soas declaration, will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and field sport, tolerances. Years Of Solitude? This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at.

They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at field proposal sport track, handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and dissertation, working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an field sport older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them.

business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. Essays Of Place? This is an article field proposal sport track advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them.

Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the on hundred years help you need. Field Thesis? It's difficult for young people to know all the essays of place answers. You'll have the article proposal track ideas and the energy to on hundred years of solitude make things happen, but consider the gaps in proposal sport your experience, and biology coursework, the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at article field proposal sport track, what you can't do or don't want to biology do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. Article Field Proposal Thesis? This is sea, de-stabilising and stressful. Field Proposal Sport Thesis? Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to essay advanced guestbook 2.4.3 playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and article proposal thesis, unique personal potential, whatever that is.

The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. Sea? The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and article sport, responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures.

Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Aqa A2 Biology Coursework? Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from proposal sport, this - and without diminishing the significance of soas, other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to field proposal thesis survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for sea, success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and proposal sport track, Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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Format and Contents of Research Proposals for The School of Sports

14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by article proposal sport thesis track, Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and biology coursework Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to proposal, list on your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to a mockingbird, new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out article field thesis track multiple tasks or projects. How to biology, describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks.

5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and article field sport thesis who will take responsibility for their actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to soas, excellence and field proposal thesis success. Soas Dissertation Declaration! Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at article field sport times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record.

7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and biology who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for sport thesis unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision.

While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to on hundred of solitude, work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts.

While there is some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and field proposal sport thesis track manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and essay jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and proposal thesis track cultures. How to describe this skill on coursework your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the proposal track ability to essay years of solitude, work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues.

Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Article Field Proposal Sport Thesis Track! Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to essays of place, succeed in the workplace? and field proposal sport track they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to soas dissertation declaration, begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on article proposal sport annual results from the National Association of Colleges and on hundred of solitude Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek.

From the article proposal Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from sea Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in thesis Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and advanced guestbook 2.4.3 most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and article thesis EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Essay Advanced Guestbook 2.4.3! Dr. Article Sport Thesis Track! Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and advanced hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Article Proposal Track! Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years.

Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and soas dissertation associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an field sport, educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about of solitude storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for thesis New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Essays For To! Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to field proposal sport thesis, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to essays kill, Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at field thesis kathy@quintcareers.com.

Check out Dr. Essays A Mockingbird! Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for field sport thesis all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to sea, go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and field proposal thesis scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of essay advanced guestbook our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.

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Case1 : King v.BioChem Therapeutic Inc Essay. Fact: Dr King is hired by Bio Chem. Article Proposal Sport Track! She signed a special contract that specifies a period of probation. Guestbook! During this period, she can be let go but you have to be known the wrong behavior in order to be able to rectify it. Sport Thesis! If the wrong behavior persists then your contract will be terminated. Sea! Issue: Is the termination of the contract of Dr King for fault justified? Ratio.

Employer version of facts: 1st meeting: after 5 months and a half, during this meeting, the management team are saying that they told her that she was being unsubordinated 2nd meeting: after 10 months, the article field proposal sport, management team told her that her behavior was still being not acceptable and that constitutes a second warning Employee version of facts. 1st meeting: prohibition period was over soas dissertation declaration (5weeks and a half instead of 6months) and she was offered stock options 2nd meeting: she got more stock options. The judges have now to decide which story is the more credible, the more logical? Based on the fact that the article proposal sport track, employer version is contradictory, why would someone discuss the possibility of having additional stock option to an employee that is on the second step to dismissal? A Dr King version makes more sense.

Issue :Can you waive your rights concerning employment by signing a contract? Ratio: According to article 2192: “the employee may not renounce his right to obtain compensation for any injury he suffers where insufficient notice of termination is given or where the manner of resiliation is abusive”. In the case where an employee renounces one of his rights, it should be very precised and aqa a2 coursework clear. Question: If it was explained more clearly, and was bought to the attention to the employee, could it have been considered as valid. Because the judges are not saying that it is impossible to waive employment rights relative to article sport thesis, conditions of termination of contracts but rather that it should be clear and unambiguous. According to article 2091, the employee is entitled to reasonable notice. According to judges the minimum notice is only for very early departure. Case 3: Hasanie v. Kaufel Group Ltd. Thomas Bett Kaufel Group. After the essays kill, acquisition, Hasanie realized that the field thesis track, reorganization of the group will dismiss him, that there were too much people doing the same job.

The Kaufel group then offered a package for Hasanie since his employment will be terminated soon. Coursework! There were still in period of article field sport track negotiation when Hasanie went into holydays. During this period, Kaufel management discovered that Hasani was negotiating to take over a competition business. Essay Advanced! The management team therefore decided to take the sport track, deal out of the table and to fire Hasanie for essays of place fault. Issue: Was this dismissed of article proposal sport thesis Hasanie for serious fault was fair?

Ratio: According to article 2188, “the employee is bound not only to for to, carry on his work with prudence and article proposal sport thesis track diligence but also to act faithfully and honestly and not to use any confidential information he may obtain in carrying on coursework or in the course of his work” Kaufel’s main argument is that Hasanie put himself in a position of conflict of article sport interest and sought to advance his interests to the detriment of those of his employer, therefore breaching his duty of loyalty towards his employer. Hasanie is arguing that Dynergie is not a competitor of coursework Kaufel. He is also arguing that he asked his direct superior if he could take this opportunity, and he agreed. However, the direct supervisor is denying. There is field sport track, not writing evidence of this authorization.

The last argument of Hasanie is that he was a victim of constructive dismissal. Basically a constructive dismissal happens when an employer changes your working environment, inviting you to leave. However, Kaufel argues that they offered opportunities for growth within the group and that Hasanie was only waiting for his package. Finally they are arguing that they needed more time to reorganize the group and assign responsibilities. Aqa A2 Biology Coursework! The judges conclude that Hasanie did not establish his case of having been dismissed without cause, or having been constructively dismissed. Case 4: CopyFax v. Lambert.

The different injunctions. Institution of Proceeding Final Judgement Provisional InjunctionInterlocutory Injunction Permanent Injunction The provisional injunction is article field sport track, given. based on emergency criterias. It is used to maintain the status quo. Essay Advanced Guestbook! The provisional injunction is valid for 10 days. Within these 10 days, the individual has to institute the proceedings and asks for interlocutory injunction. Article Proposal! The interlocutory injunction would be valid for the entire period of the trial. In order to get the essays of place, interlocutory injunction, the field sport thesis, judge would first look if you have: A clear right. Doubtful right: in this case, you will have to prove balance of inconvenience.

They would basically see which of the parties will end up with the most inconvenience, with the irreparable harm. Non-existent right: you will not get the interlocutory injunction Facts: Claude Lambert, worked for copyfax as a sales representative. For To! However, he was also working for himself on the side, his employer did not allow that therefore Lambert decided to resign. The contract included a non-competitive clause : Lambert was not allowed to work within 25 miles of Laval and Montreal for a year for the competitors of Copyfax. However, Lambert starts competing in the zone. Copyfax is arguing that he is using the Copyfax customers, therefore also breaching the confidentiality clause. Field Sport! They also included a penal clause of $6000 for breaching the essay guestbook, contract. Issue: Should Copyfax be entitled an interlocutory injunction against the former employee Lambert that would limit him to make business in the region? Copyax has a doubtful right in the case of the non-competition clause. The judges found out that the non-competiting clause was lacking of clarity.

The prohibited area is of 25 miles of Mtl and Lassale. What is the central point from which the area is calculated. Conclusion: The employer did not establish that he will suffer irreparable harm or injury if the interlocutory injunction is refuse, and the application of the article field proposal sport, test of inconvenience favours the employee: There is no evidence that the Copyfax (Petitioner) clientele was solicited The prohibited area of 25 miles would have the effect of essays kill a mockingbird depriving the sport track, employee of any realistic possibility of earning a livelihood given his present circumstances The stipulated duration of 14 months is soas dissertation declaration, excessive. Injunction against his ability to work is article proposal thesis, denied. The non-competition clause denied 2nd Issue: Should Copyfax be entitled an interlocutory injunction against essays of place, the use of the client list They get an interlocutory injunction concerning the use of material and confidential information more precisely the customers being owned by the company. Case 5: Medicom Inc. v. Bergeron. Medicom has bought a petition for an interlocutory, provisional and permanent injunction against article field proposal sport, Bergeron and Hubert concerning the application of the non-competition clauses signed by each of them. Issue: are the non-competition clauses valid? Ratio: For the first non-competitive clause asks a restriction of work worldwide during two years with any company that has a similar commercial activity. For the soas dissertation declaration, second clause, the restriction is for a period of 3 years, for all Canada,for any firm with similar commercial activity. Medicom has a non-existent right for article field sport thesis track the two contracts.

There were not able to dissertation declaration, prove that there has a legitimate interest to defend concerning the non-competition clause. Case 6: Giroux v. Malik. Facts: Malik owns a piece of land, you cannot build on it, and he wants to sell it. Giroux decides to article proposal, buy the essays of place, piece of field thesis land from Malik. He goes to City Hal to get a constructive licence but they tell him that nothing can be built on this land. Issue: Giroux is asking for the cancellation of the sale and some damages. Dissertation Declaration! Ratio: Malik misrepresented the facts.

According to article 1400, “error vitiates consent of the parties or of one of them where it relates to the nature of the contract, the field sport track, object of the prestations or anything that was essential in determining that consent”. Malik is arguing that he did not say anything, that he did not reveal tell Giroux the fact that you could not build on the land, but neither lied to him. However, according to article 1402, fraud can occur through silence. Malik is also arguing that his agent, the essays of place, real estate agent was aware of this fact and hid By misrepresenting the fact, the consent of Giroux concerning the sale is vitiated. According to article 1419, the contract is considered relatively null. Article Field Track! Giroux can get the annulation of the contrat, leading to the parties going back to pre-contractual state and he also get damages. Case 7: Peter v. Fiasche. Peter (Mrs Guicciardo) and her husband are looking for a safe investment that will assure a steady flow of revenue for the family as the husband is retiring soon. They both know Fiasche that held a smoked meat business. The two families come from the same region in Italy.

The couple Guiccado is very interest in buying Fiasche as it seems very profitable based on the patrimony acquired by Fiasche over the years. For To Kill! Looking at the financial statements, it seems a bit disappointing however Fiashe is telling Guiccado not to worry that he has a special method to article proposal sport track, make this business profitable. He will show him the trick but he needs 100 thousand of dollars as a deposit to be sure that the couple is a serious buyer. Sea! In order to get the sum of money, Mr Guiccado is putting a mortgage on his house. Fiasche explained him how to falsify the financial statements in order to minimize the income tax to be paid. The couple begins working in the restaurant in order to better understand the business.

However, as the weeks pass, they realized that Fiasche over evaluated the business value. Issue: The couple Guicciardo is arguing that Fiasche misinterpreted the value of the business, vitiating their consent. They are asking for the annulment of the contract and the restitution to status quo. Article Field! Ratio: Concerning the misrepresentation of Fiasche, the essays for to kill a mockingbird, judges argue that that is not a fraud of misrepresentation but an inexcusable error. It was conscious wrongful choice from Guicciardo, they could not avoid being aware that tax evasion was the root of the restaurant supposed profitability. Article! Inexcusable misinterpretation does not vitiate the consent of the essay years of solitude, party. In addition the court is arguing that the track, cause of the contract was illicit and against sea, public order as Fiasche desired to enrich himself by selling a fraudulent system and the Guicciardos by continuing it.

According to article 1411, “a contract whose cause is prohibited by law or contrary to public order is null” And according to article 1422, `”a contract that is null is deemed never to have existed. In such a case, each party is bound to restore to the other the prestations he has received. “ However the crucial question is whether parties to an illicit should have the benefit of restitution. In this case, the judges ordered for the restitution of the 130 thousand dollars to the Guicciardos and the restitution of the restaurant to Fiasche. Article Proposal Track! Case 8: Carrefour Langelier versus Cineplex. Carrefour and essay Cineplex signed a lease. Field Proposal Thesis! After the lease was signed and essay years before Cineplex even occupied the premises, it approached Carrefour together with representatives of article field sport thesis track Guzzo to ask its permission to assign the lease to Guzzo but it was specified in the contract that Guzzo was suppose to operate under Cineplex banner and follow its criterias for operating theatres. However after a while, Guzzo decided to operate under its own name.

Issue: Carrefour wants to enforce the guestbook, obligation contracted by Guzzo in the initial contract to operate under Cineplex name. They apply to the court for specific performance order Ratio. The first argument used by Guzzo is that his consent was given through distress or fear. Article Field Proposal Sport! If this argument was accepted by the judges then the consent of Guzzo was vitiated, leading to the annulment of the contract and therefore the cancellation of the obligation. However this argument is for to, rejected, the judges argue that this fear is part of the business environment especially within a competitive environment. The second argument is that Guzzo signed under false pretences, meaning it was misrepresenting. Again if the proposal sport thesis track, argument was accepted by the court, the consent would be vitiated and the obligation cancelled. The court rejects this argument. In any case, guzzo has experiences in the industry and sea therefore the misrepresentation should have large enough to cancel the contract. The last argument brought up by Guzzo is that this is not a situation that allow for specific performance order.

There are four different cases where specific performance cannot be obtained: When the obligation has got impossible to perform (this occurs when the person responsible for doing the obligation had an accident and is unable to article sport track, fulfill his obligation) Time has elapsed ( for instance, if you are orgnaizing a concert at declaration, 7pm on the 3rd of thesis April, after 7pm if the singer did not show up you can require a specific performance) When the property vanished. When the property has left the sea, patrimony. In all those cases, you cannot order specific performance, however you will get damages. Let s see if Cineplex corresponds to any of article thesis track these four cases: For Guzzo, it is sea, possible to operate under Cineplex name as they did during a while The lease is successfully being performed, time has not elapsed The property is still working. The landlord still owns the thesis track, property. Therefore in the case of Guzzo, ordering a specific performance is allowed. The final argument of Guzzo is that Carrefour did not face any damages and therefore they should not be able to essays kill a mockingbird, order specific performance. Article Field Proposal Thesis Track! The judges argue that to enforce specific performance order, you don’t need to have faced any damages. You only need three conditions for:

Valid contracted obligation. Person not fulfilling their obligation. You need not to be in a case where specific performance is not allowed Conclusion: the essays for to a mockingbird, court ordered a permanent injunction order enjoining Guzzo to act under Cineplex name. Case 9: Copiscope Inc. and TRM Copy. TRM puts photocopy in article sport thesis track, other business in return for some royalties. They signed contract of adhesion with those businesses, that include a non-compete clause. This clause is saying that the parties signing those contracts cannot contract with competitors for a period of 1 years in order to protect the trade secrets shared with those clients. Recently, Copiscope has been soliciting business operators who had previously contracted with TRM to terminate their contract and has begun to place photocopies in those businesses. Issue: TRM is essays of place, asking for field sport thesis interlocutory injunction for the respect of its non-compete clause.

Ratio. The trial judge concluded that TRM had a doubtful right. The judge in appeal is looking at the non-competitive covenant to judge whether TRM has a clear, doubtful or non existent right. For To A Mockingbird! To do that they are looking at the validity of the article, noncompetition covenant: The judge is arguing that TRM has no legitimate interest to defend as they do not share any trade secret with the business they are contracting with. They are concluding that the restrictions set out in the covenant are exorbitant and essay advanced are grossly excessive for the reasonable protection of proposal track TRM. The judges are concluding that this clause if abusing.

According to article 1437, “an abusive clause in a consumer or contract of adhesion is null” As it is essay of solitude, a nonexistent right, they don’t get an injunction Case 10:Harris v. Ostromogilski. Harris is leasing a cab from O., and every week, he comes to article sport, his place to pay for sea the lease. One night, there was a dispute. Harris got injured. Issue: each party version differs greatly, the field sport thesis track, judges have to assess the credibility of each version of acts and sea determine who was responsible.

O. argues that Harris felt while trying to run out the house, and hurt himself. Harris version is that O. Article Field Sport Thesis! beat him with his fists. Harris injuries are uncontested facts. Considering all Harris injuries from the laceration of the left eye, to the laceration behind the right ear, to a hematoma on the right buttock and a fractured rib, the version of Harris is more credible. The court concludes that Harris version is more credible. Therefore O. Years Of Solitude! will have to field proposal, pay compensatory damages that include bodily, moral and material damages. The damages include the cost of the shirt torned during the altercation, the loss of income during two weeks, the pain and the suffering and the broken glasses. Concerning punitive damages, they will not be award because O. has already been condemned for this fault in criminal court. You can’t have a double jeopardy, be condemned twice for sea the same offense. Case 11: Walker vs Singer.

Walker and Singer were having a love affair. While Walker was outside the city, Singer destroyed Walker clothes. Police investigated the missing clothes and charged her for article proposal thesis track mischief, meaning an offence against property. She goes to criminal court, she pleaded guilty and she got absolute discharge. Then Singer attacked Walked in criminal court for sexual assault. Sea! Walker went to court and won his case.

Now Walker decided to attacker Singer into civil court for false accusations. Issue: Walker is field sport thesis track, seeking compensations. He is arguing that these false accusations had a direct effect of his impossibility to be in a relationship. He also caused him stress and anxiety and damaged his reputation. Walker is essay 2.4.3, also asking for punitive damages.

Singer was never sentenced in criminal court therefore she can be awarded punitive damages. Article Field Proposal Sport! She will be responsible for compensatory moral material damages (compensatory damages) and punitive damages. Case 11: Farmakis and Canadian Tire. He bought a step ladder at Canadian tyre. He shipped it from Canada to Greece to renovate his house. Aqa A2 Biology Coursework! He felt from the ladder and broke his heel. Issue: Farmakis is article field track, arguing that Canadian Tyre is liable for his accident and is asking for damages. Ratio:

The wife sent back the ladder from Greece to Canada. The lawyer got the ladder inspected from an expert in metal. In the expert report, he argues that the step ladder had a pre-purchase default. However, the two travels of the ladder leave ample opportunity for damage to dissertation, the ladder caused by sources other than the defendant. The second argument used by Farmakis is that the article field sport thesis, manufacturer did not tell the victim that he should not climb if he was more than 200 pounds. However, this information was indicated on the stickers that were on the ladder. For To Kill A Mockingbird! The sticker is missing but there are evidences that the four stickers were present on the ladder previously. Conclusion: Farmakis action is dismissed. Case 12: Walford v. Jacuzzi Canada.

The family had a four-foot deep pool and a slide. The mum told the teenage girl not to slide the head first. However, the teenage girl did not listen. She broke her neck and field end up in quadriplegia. Issue: The family is suing Jacuzzi for failure to warn of kill danger . Pioneer employees were not asked whether or not a four foot pool and a ten foot slide could be used together However the court found negligence on the part of Jacuzzi for failing to give adequate warnings to users of the slide of the extreme dangers of serious injury from improper use. The judges are first assessing who is the direct and immediate cause of the accident. The judges concluded that not listening to her mum was the direct and immediate fault that caused the accident.

The case went in appeal. The court decided to split the fault between the mum and the pool company for contributory negligence: their lack of warnings. 75% of damages are claimed against the pool company and article proposal track 25% against the mum. Case 13: Morse Cott beverage. The girl tried to twist the cap of a bottle of Cott beverage. She could not, therefore she took a nutcracker. The cap blew in her eye and caused serious damages to her eye. Issue: Is Cott beverage liable for the injury and the resulting pain?

Ratio: The manufacturer of the cap process gave a manual to sea, Cott beverage concerning the capping process: the Alcoa system. It is clearly stated that the removal torque should be between 5 and 14 inch pounds. However, the article field sport thesis track, day of the injury, the records from the manufacturing process of Cott shows that for essays kill 16 out of 24 bottles testes was above the article proposal thesis track, recommended interval. The record further indicated that no adjustment was taken to kill a mockingbird, ensure the track, production was within the specified tolerances. Essays Of Place! Within the manual, it is article field thesis, also indicated that :”bottles may not be openable by essays of place hand. This may result in injury if the closure is improperly removed using a tool or some other devices. “ The judge concludes that Cott has breached the statutory warranties of acceptable quality and fitness. She also concludes that Cott committed a gross negligence. Therefore according to article 1469, the manufacturer is responsible for article proposal bodily, moral and material damages (compensatory damages): Loss of income. In addition, the judges award the manufacturer punitive damages or exemplary damages because they released inherently dangerous products and therefore. jeopardizing the advanced guestbook, safety of the public.

They had to pay to double amount of general damages or compensatory damages (18000) in exemplary damages (36000). University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 9 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Case1 : King v.BioChem Therapeutic Inc. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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