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Critical Essays Zola and Naturalism - CliffsNotes
book summary form Effective Book Summary. (For the essay Back Cover, Data Sheets, or General Promotions) For marketing, promotions, back cover copy, and for your editor and/or publisher, you will often find you need to write book summaries of varying length. In addition, you are going to need to ap lang rhetorical analysis prompts develop a summary you can quickly give verbally whenever you are asked what your book is about. It is critically important that you be able to give the premise and effectively describe your book whenever asked. Every contact you have with a curious person-whether in person or by phone or e-mail-is an zola naturalism, opportunity for you to sell your book. A summary is a brief description of your book, and it's filled with excitement and essay on human interaction, feeling. The summary introduces the main character(s) and the plot and main conflicts facing them and asks questions or presents quandaries that will pique the emile zola naturalism reader's interest. 2) written in third person; 3) written to include cliffhangers and teasers, and it does not reveal any conclusions. A summary is not exactly the same as a synopsis. It's shorter, punchier, and meant to encourage the mccain research reader to open the book and dive in.
In contrast, a general synopsis is more detailed and is geared toward attracting an agent or publisher. The summary to which I refer is used after you have contracted your book. Writing a brief narrative description of emile zola your book can do a number of ap lang rhetorical analysis prompts things for you. First, it will help you to consolidate your thoughts concerning what your book is emile essay, about. It will also allow you to concisely sketch out the on human interaction details, which will give you confidence any time you need to talk about your book with a fan, at a reading, on the radio, or in written materials. You can use it on your personal websites, in notices to online groups, and for announcements to chat lists and internet book forums. Most publishers do write summaries for use in promotions, for website updates, and for emile naturalism the back cover. Analysis Essay? But nobody knows your book better than you, and particularly in the early stages (before an editor has begun work with your story), it is emile, up to you to have information available. Start first paragraph with information about the obama mccain research Lead's circumstances: Name of Lead Character: ________________________________ is a ____________________ who __________________________________ Write a very short description (from two to three concise sentences) about the character's circumstances/background/current situation. You might include where the story occurs, too. Emile Zola Essay Naturalism? This can be a geographical thing or merely a mention of the type of world (race car driving, furniture store, university, the Wild West, etc.).
Second Lead Character's Name (if there is one):____________________ is a ________________________ who __________________________________ Write a very short description (in two or three concise sentences) about this character's circumstances/background/current situation with an emphasis on how s/he contrasts with the First Lead character. How do the two characters contrast, and what is at stake for each that brings on conflict? Here is essay, where the zola naturalism plot thickens. Essay? Describe in two or three sentences the essay major complications that occur for the main character(s). Think in terms of what stands in the way of the bell hooks biography character(s) getting what they want. Naturalism? What are the main conflicts, the main obstacles? What is the story question? This paragraph will often start with words like Suddenly or But when or Little does ___ know… Use questions here with words like Can or Will: Will Wanda merely lose her lover - or also her life?
Can she escape the clutches of the ap lang rhetorical analysis clandestine organization before she is captured and naturalism, they beat the secrets out of her? Or Can Esme put aside her past and on human, find a way to reach out to zola essay naturalism Barrie? And will Barrie open her heart enough to let her in? Or With the abusive Randall hot on their heels, will Allison and Mary escape the hell from which they flee? Or will the man use his powers to have them killed?
Final Comment (optional) Add a final line which can be either a blurb or a publisher's marketing statement: Name of do i write numbers Book_______ is a story of love and loss by the incomparable Author Name_______. Naturalism? Or Author Name_______'s eighth novel is jam-packed with excitement and thesis, surprises. Don't miss this one from the undisputed master of suspense. Or This debut novel by emile naturalism a talented new novelist breaks all the rules and will keep you reading from sunup to sundown. Don't miss this one. SAMPLE - Long Version (355 words) Sally Remington, who comes from a blue-collar background, is a Connecticut painter just starting to receive attention for her unusual use of light and color. Essay On Human Interaction? After twelve years of laboring in the interior design business and painting at night, she is finally invited to New York City for her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery. Her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. More than anything, Sally wants Anne Remington to zola essay live long enough to see her daughter's art success. Painter Sally Remington, who comes from ap lang rhetorical analysis prompts a blue-collar background, is just starting to receive attention for her unusual use of light and color.
After supporting her art for twelve years in emile zola naturalism, a Connecticut interior design business, she is finally invited to New York City for her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery. Her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. Sally prays Anne Remington will live long enough to see her daughter's art success. When painter Sally Remington is finally invited to essay New York City for her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery, her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. Painter Sally Remington and her terminally ill mother travel to New York for Sally's first art show at essay, Samples Gallery.
There Sally meets wealthy administrator Virginia Samples who has had everything handed to her on 100 essay a platinum platter. Sally is no match for Virginia's biting tongue, and the bitter socialite is repelled by Sally's demeanor but strangely attracted to Sally's art. Why does Virginia feel so drawn to her? And why can't Sally get Virginia out of her mind? You can write a summary of your book at any time just as you might write a synopsis. The difference is that your summary asks questions and poses problems while the synopsis lays everything out from beginning to end.
You could even use this tool before you write the book. Using the template above, you could easily create characters, plot, and conflict that you could then employ to write an essay naturalism, entire novel. Biography Essay? For expanded information about writing queries, synopses, and essay naturalism, proposals, check out these books: Your Novel Proposal from Creation to Contract: The Complete Guide to Writing Query Letters, Synopses Proposals. By Blythe Camenson Marshall J. Cook. By Michael Larsen.
Handbook for the Beginning Novelist. by R. Karl Largent _____. Bell Hooks Essay? From her untitled book about novel writing, a work in progress.
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Emile zola essay naturalism Naturalism (theatre) - wikipedia
one three one essay The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Guideposts of Limited Government. WILLIAM J. Emile Naturalism. WATKINS, JR.* In 1885 Woodrow Wilson noted that criticism of the Constitution had ceased upon its adoption and 100 essay, an undiscriminating and almost blind worship of its principles had developed (Wilson 1885, 4). A survey of American political discourse after the Constitution's ratification reveals that its provisions were often quoted in such a manner as a minister would quote the Gospel.
Considering that the history of Anglo-American liberty is, in many respects, a history of great charters and the events leading to their adoption, American reverence for the Constitution is not surprising (see Brooks 1993). Of course, the Constitution is not the only document in the pantheon. For most Americans the Declaration of zola essay naturalism, Independence is also a sacred document, and some scholars place it above the Constitution (Jaffa 1994, 22-23). However, conspicuously absent from the list of universally revered charters are Thomas Jefferson's and James Madison's Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. For their lucid reasoning and peerless prose, they merit inclusion as much as the Constitution itself. Unfortunately, the Resolves of on human, 1798, as they are also known, have been given short shrift as the nation has become more consolidated. Though the centralizers can twist the language of the Constitution to confer plenary powers on the national government, the language of the Resolves cannot be so manipulated. So Americans are kept in the dark about the principles of '98, lest they be tempted to reclaim the decentralized republic of the emile essay naturalism, Constitution's framers. Hoary and forgotten by most, the Resolves mark the path to limited government.
Though much has changed since Jefferson and Madison penned the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, the nature of power remains the same #151; power can be checked only by essay power. Naturalism. The Resolves point to the states as the natural depository of the power to check the national government. Madison came to that realization long before he wrote the Virginia resolution. In Federalist 51 , he described the horizonal and vertical checks and balances established by the Constitution and plainly stated that the state and national governments will controul each other; at the same time each will be controulled by itself (Madison, Hamilton, and Jay  1982, 264). If the American people are once again to gain control of the rhetorical analysis essay, national government, it will be through the states. No new theories are needed; the zola essay naturalism, intellectual giants of the founding era have done the work for us. Threat of French Invasion. As the year 1798 began, the prospect of war with France loomed. How the special relationship between France and the United States had deteriorated after the American Revolution is essay interaction, a complicated story. Hostilities between the two former allies were probably likely insofar as the French had supported the American Revolution not because of beliefs in self-determination or republicanism but because of emile zola essay, Louis XVI's desire to punish Great Britain for the defeat of France in the Seven Years' War. Many Americans were thankful for French aid in the Revolution, but others realized early on that although France had helped the on human interaction, United States to break from George III, the French would never acquiesce in its becoming a great nation (Ketcham 1963, 204-5).
With the coming of the French Revolution, which most Americans saw as an extension of their own, American enthusiasm for France grew. Hindsight now shows that the two revolutions had little in common, the American Revolution being an orderly lawyer's revolution whereas the French version was, to paraphrase Simon Schama, the incarnation of violence (1989, xv). Nonetheless, in the 1790s loyal Americans were divided into pro-French and pro-British camps, with the former led by Jefferson and Madison and the latter by Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton and the Federalists, great admirers of Great Britain and its constitution, had a vested interest in peace with Britain. The entire Hamiltonian financial system depended on tariff revenue derived from imports of British goods. If commerce between the United States and the mother country suffered disruption, American credit would crumble. The Republicans, on the other hand, detested Hamilton's policies, especially the emile naturalism, debt assumption and the Bank of the essay on human interaction, United States. Recognizing that the Federalist fiscal program sought to bind men of wealth and emile zola naturalism, status to the central government in an effort to weaken state influence, the Republicans automatically suspected the Anglo-men and Britain itself. Moreover, the farmers and planters of the South, who were predominantly Republican, owed enormous sums of money to British creditors, and hence they naturally favored the French (Elkins and McKitrick 1993, 90). Key to the rupture with France was President George Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 and the Neutrality Act of 1794. Interaction. Because the zola essay naturalism, United States was bound by treaty to defend the French West Indies and prohibited from obama, aiding the enemies of France, Washington's actions raised the ire of the French as they warred with Great Britain.
Though neutrality was the practical course for a young, weak nation, such treatment of France shocked Madison and emile zola essay naturalism, other Republicans who, unlike the Federalists, sympathized with the essay, cause of revolutionary France and emile zola, believed that the United States should fulfill its obligations (Brant 1950, 374-75). While Washington and his cabinet debated neutrality, the embodiment of the French Revolution arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. Charles Edmund Genet, the essay, new minister of the French Republic, was welcomed by enthusiastic crowds and local dignitaries. Long before presenting his credentials in Philadelphia, Genet began to emile zola essay naturalism, outfit privateers and schemed to incite rebellion in Florida, New Orleans, and Canada. As Genet learned that the Americans' definition of interaction, neutrality and their interpretations of the existing treaties with France differed markedly from his own, his conduct grew more outrageous. Just as the mob ruled in France, so Genet thought the mob ruled in America.
Taking that logic to an extreme, Genet threatened to go over the head of President Washington and emile, appeal directly to the American people. Republicans and ap lang rhetorical essay prompts, Federalists quickly realized that Genet was intractable, and essay naturalism, Washington's cabinet voted unanimously to demand his recall. Genet's conduct was an embarrassment to essay, French sympathizers in America, and, as Harry Ammon writes, it exposed, as no other previous episode, the extent and fury of the disagreement between the two groups which had been seeking to control national policy since the bitter controversy generated by the Hamiltonian fiscal program (1973, 32). Furthermore, the ratification in 1795 of Jay's Treaty, which attempted to settle sundry differences between Great Britain and the United States,  struck the French as yet another betrayal. Specifically, the Directory was outraged by the provisions requiring the United States to order French privateers out of American ports and permitting the British to emile zola, capture ships bound for France bearing needed supplies. Obama Mccain. Madison, in a letter of 12 February 1798 to Thomas Jefferson, called the zola naturalism, infamous treaty an insidious instrument (Madison 1991, 78).
Consequently, the French minister was withdrawn from Philadelphia, and in Paris the French government refused to receive the interaction, new American minister, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The Directory, in violation of the commercial treaty of 1778, declared that it would no longer adhere to the principle that free ships carried free goods and would consider all neutral vessels carrying British goods as fair game. In addition, any Americans captured while serving on enemy ships would be dealt with as pirates. Thus, the French began to zola, arbitrarily seize American shipping on hooks biography, the high seas. Within a year after the ratification of Jay's Treaty, France had captured or destroyed more than three hundred American vessels. Emile Zola Naturalism. Clearly the French actions constituted acts of war, and an unofficial naval war was soon raging between the two nations. The situation took a turn for the worse when President Adams sent John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry, and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to difference between thesis, Paris to negotiate a peaceful settlement. Emile Naturalism.  The emissaries were denied access to the Directory and insulted by write French agents supposedly acting on behalf of the emile zola, French foreign minister, Talleyrand.  Talleyrand's agents, known in the dispatches simply as X, Y, and Z,  demanded a bribe, a loan to France, and an apology for anti-French statements made by President Adams as prerequisites for negotiations. Though bribes were common in France, permitting high officials to live in luxury,  Americans considered their honor insulted when accounts of the XYZ affair were published at essay on human, home. Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute, was the national cry. The United States certainly did not need a war with France. If such a war broke out, the United States would face the French alone.
In 1798 Great Britain, America's potential ally, was itself in grave danger. Many believed a French invasion of the British Isles to be imminent. With Great Britain under French control, the United States would have had no choice but to emile, capitulate to analysis essay, all French demands or risk invasion itself. In this setting the zola naturalism, Federalists, who controlled the hooks biography, government at the time, regarded themselves as locked in a life-and-death struggle against France. They considered opposition to their policies to be the result of faction and dangerous to the survival of the republic.
The Adams administration viewed the Republicans, the chief political opponents of the Federalists, as rabidly pro-French in their political tendencies. Emile Naturalism. President Adams believed that the French Jacobinal faction would link up with French armies if an invasion were to occur. As the war frenzy grew, President Adams occasionally appeared in public in military uniform with a sword at his side. Fearing that supporters of Jefferson were little better than the mobs of France, Adams ordered a cache of weapons delivered to his home for protection. Alexander Hamilton happily fanned the flames of war as he urged that an army of twenty thousand men be raised immediately. Fearing he had underestimated the danger, Hamilton later raised the figure to fifty thousand. George Washington, in retirement at Mount Vernon, let the administration know he would be willing to take charge of the army in this time of national crisis. Mccain. Washington did assume command, but he was only a titular commander. Hamilton held the real power. Of all the Federalists, Hamilton greeted war with the most excitement. Not only did he long to meet the forces of regicide on the field of emile zola essay naturalism, battle, but he saw the crisis as an on human opportunity to quell resistance to national power in the southern states.
When Virginia began to emile essay naturalism, upgrade its neglected defenses, primarily in response to increased Indian attacks on its western border, Hamilton took that action as a sign that Virginia was preparing the question the authority of the Union. Fortunately, cooler heads restrained Hamilton from marching on the Old Dominion. Hamilton also hoped to use his army to take Louisiana and Florida for the United States. Ever ambitious, he entertained dreams of pushing into South America as well. Rather than quiet the Federalists' nerves, the Republicans joyfully aggravated the situation. Republicans often addressed each other in an essay, the French fashion as citizen and celebrated French military victories with grand feasts. Emile Zola Essay Naturalism.  Jefferson made it known that he would welcome a French victory over Great Britain. Because of his support of the French Revolution despite his knowledge of the terror, Jefferson had earlier lost the ap lang rhetorical analysis prompts, confidence of George Washington and was no longer trusted by his old friend John Adams.  Rather than see the zola, French Revolution fail, Jefferson was prepared to see half of the earth desolated; were there but an Adam and an Eve left in years, every country, and left free, it would be better than as it now is (Jefferson 1853, 502).  Because of the emile essay, real threats posed by France in the war at write, sea and the perceived threats of an unabashedly pro-French opposition, the Federalists believed they had to act to save the nation. They began with a military buildup that was opposed every step of the way by Republicans.
The Federalist Congress also imposed a stamp duty, a direct tax on houses and slaves, a land tax, and an increase in the customs duties. The government resorted to borrowing, taking a $5 million loan at 8 percent interest that made the Federalists look like wastrels. The Republicans opposed these measures because they feared standing armies, fiscal irresponsibility, and zola essay naturalism, loose play with the Constitution. Moreover, they believed that the war preparations would strengthen the commercial North and weaken the agrarian South. Though Jefferson loathed the write out in an essay, Federalists' taxes, he also found hope in them.
He realized that only strong medicine would cure the emile essay naturalism, people of war fever, and in a 26 November 1798 letter to Madison, he expressed his belief that with the levying of taxes the Doctor is now on obama research, his way to cure [war hysteria], in the guise of a tax gatherer (Jefferson 1854a, 274). Jacobin fever afflicted most prominent Federalists, and emile zola naturalism, they began to formulate legislation to deal with the perceived danger. The leaders in Congress already had an excellent model to follow. In 1794, in response to the French Revolution, William Pitt had pushed through Parliament the Law against Treasonable Practices and the Law against Seditious Meetings. Pitt silenced calls for reform, broke up democratic societies, and sent several newspaper editors to Botany Bay. Difference And Doctoral. As in Great Britain, the measures taken in the United States against the dangers posed by revolutionary France served the zola essay naturalism, dual purposes of defending the country and conveniently silencing political opponents. The first act passed in hooks, the United States because of the zola naturalism, French threat, the between masters and doctoral thesis, Naturalization Act of emile essay naturalism, 18 June 1798, was aimed at European immigrants.  It increased the period that immigrants had to rhetorical analysis essay, wait before they could be naturalized from five years to fourteen years. Primarily aimed at zola naturalism, wild Irishmen and the thirty thousand Frenchmen who resided in the United States, the act was intended to reduce the ranks of the Jeffersonian Republicans, who had a large constituency of recent immigrants. Federalist Harrison Otis, however, attempted to go much farther. He proposed a constitutional amendment to exclude all foreign-born who were not citizens at the time from all offices in the government of the United States.
The amendment was a purely political attack on Republican Albert Gallatin, who had been born in Switzerland. Gallatin had aided the Whiskey Rebels and was the Republican floor leader in the House of Representatives. Fortunately for Gallatin, who later became Jefferson's frugal Treasury secretary, Otis's amendment received little support. The Alien Friends Act of 25 June 1798 gave the president the power to deport any alien he thought dangerous to the tranquillity or safety of the United States, without a trial or a reason given for the suspicion. Only upon receiving notice to leave the country was the analysis essay prompts, alien allowed to present evidence of his blamelessness and to apply for a license to remain. In letter of 20 May 1798, Madison described the Alien Friends Act as a monster that must for ever disgrace its parents (Madison 1991, 133-34). Of all the acts passed during that tumultuous time, only the Alien Enemies Act of 6 July 1798 was a true war measure. The act gave the president the power in case of war or threatened invasion to remove all resident aliens of the common enemy. As the naturalism, Alien Acts were under discussion by the House and write out in, Senate in Philadelphia, Jefferson in a letter of 3 May 1798 to Madison noted that many Frenchmen residing in the City of naturalism, Brotherly Love had chartered a ship to sail with as many as she can carry (Jefferson 1854a, 239).
Foreigners recognized the perils of remaining as the Federalists prepared for war. The Sedition Act of 14 July 1798 brought up the rear in the parade of horribles. The act, which reads like an Orwellian proclamation from an essay interaction omnipotent government, provided for the punishment of those who published or uttered false or scandalous statements and information about the government of the United States, Congress, or the president. Essay. Stirring up sedition could be punished by a fine of not more than $2,000 and imprisonment not exceeding two years. Though the truth could be used as a defense, no one using that defense was ever acquitted. Two months before the Sedition Act became law, Jefferson sagaciously wrote in a letter of 26 April 1798 to Madison that the act's true aim was the suppression of the Whig presses (1854a, 237). The Sedition Act was blatantly political inasmuch as the Federalists already had a rather loyal press. Federalist newspapers also received advantageous treatment from the local deputy postmasters, who often sent out difference loyal publications without charge while suppressing Republican newspapers.
During that period, the correspondence between Jefferson and Madison contains sundry complaints of missing newspapers and essay naturalism, mail tampering.  Clearly, no press measure was needed; the Federalists already dominated the mccain research paper, press. In view of that dominance, the Sedition Act seemed to many to emile essay naturalism, be a final move to silence all opposition and secure permanent Federalist rule. Republican Newspapers Persecuted. Though the Federalists enjoyed a largely loyal press, a small but vociferous opposition press infuriated those in power. Of all the obama research paper, Republican newspapers, the emile zola essay, Philadelphia Aurora was the one most hated by the Federalists. The Aurora was published by Benjamin Franklin's grandson, Benjamin Bache, who was a master of political invective and unrelenting in his attacks. Bache incurred Federalist wrath by publishing a conciliatory letter from Talleyrand to write numbers out in an essay, President Adams before Adams had passed it on to the Congress. Because Bache obtained a copy of the letter so quickly, he was automatically presumed to be a French agent. Although his arrest took place two weeks before the zola essay naturalism, passage of the Sedition Act, the Federalists still sought to 100 essay solitude years, punish him. The federal government intended to essay naturalism, prosecute him for libel under the common law, but Justice Samuel Chase provided an obstacle: only a few months earlier he had held that in the absence of a statute the federal government could not prosecute, because there was no federal common law.
Under fire, Bache declared that he preferred death to flight, which raised doubts about difference between and doctoral his innocence. Unfortunately for the Federalists, Bache got his wish: he died of yellow fever before they could renew their attack on emile zola, him. Though death delivered Bache from the essay on human interaction, Federalists, other Republican newspapers found no solace. The Federalists brought suits against the most influential Republican papers, including the Boston Independent Chronicle , the New York Argus , the Richmond Examiner , and the Baltimore American . As if harassment by the authorities were not enough, many newspapermen were attacked by Federalist mobs wearing black cockades and had their shops burglarized and ransacked. Officials such as Secretary of State Timothy Pickering actively encouraged such outlawry. Pickering spent several hours each day searching the pages of Republican newspapers for seditious material. Earlier in his career he had been sympathetic to the French Revolution, but with the passage of the Sedition Act he atoned for his youthful indiscretion. In his quest for indictments, Pickering branded as seditious everything from flying the French tricolor to erecting a May or liberty pole. The Trial of Thomas Cooper. To understand the vehemence with which the Federalists attacked the opposition, one need only examine the accounts of the show trials conducted under the Sedition Act. Emile Zola Naturalism. Rather than exemplifying justice under a republican form of government, the trials featured sycophantic judges and prosecutors who vigorously punished citizens holding heterodox views.
If the names of the cast of characters were changed, one could easily believe the trials had occurred under a third-world potentate. Thomas Cooper, who later became the president of the South Carolina College, was a multitalented English lawyer and radical who had moved to the United States in 1794. Cooper was arrested on 9 April 1800 for a handbill written five months earlier, and his trial attracted national attention. The secretaries of war, state, and the navy all attended the trial. Congressman Robert Goodloe Harper was also there to observe the application of section 2 of the Sedition Act, which he had drafted.
Timothy Pickering went so far as to sit on the bench with the two judges, Justice Samuel Chase and District Judge Richard Peters. Attorney General William Rawle, prosecutor of the Whiskey Rebels and ap lang rhetorical essay, the tax rebel John Fries, handled the emile, case for the government. Cooper was indicted for being a person of wicked and turbulent disposition, designing and intending to defame the interaction, President . and to bring him into contempt and disrepute, and emile zola naturalism, excite against him the hatred of the good people of the United States (Cooper 1800, 7). Cooper's questioned writings included sundry complaints against the government. Those stressed by Rawle were the assertions that the country had been saddled with the rhetorical essay prompts, expense of a permanent navy and a standing army; that the government had foolishly borrowed money at 8 percent in time of peace; that Adams's statements about the French might justly have provoked war; and that Adams had interfered with the proceedings of a court of law. Cooper described the last point as a stretch of authority which the Monarch of Great Britain would have shrunk from essay, (1800, 7). Cooper pleaded not guilty and used the do i numbers out in an essay, truth as a defense.
As he mounted his defense it was clear he was not speaking merely to the court. Cooper's defense was even more an emile zola essay indictment of hooks, Adams and a message to the people to support the Jeffersonians in the election that was only months away. Cooper questioned how the emile, people could rationally use their franchise if perfect freedom of discussion of public characters be not allowed (1800, 19). He said he knew the king of England could do no wrong, but I did not know till now that the President of the United States had the same attribute (1800, 20). At remarks such as these, vexation surely showed on essay, the faces of the Federalists in naturalism, the courtroom. However, compared with his actions at some of his other trials, Justice Chase showed great patience before launching into his diatribe of jury instruction. In his charge to the jury, Justice Chase took on the air of a prosecutor rather than a judge. He even pointed out to the jury several things that Attorney General Rawle had left out of the prosecution's case. Chase then declared that Cooper's conduct shewed that he intended to dare and defy the government, and to provoke them, and his subsequent conduct [defense presented at trial] satisfies in my mind, that such was his disposition (Cooper 1800, 46).
Chase regarded Cooper's publication as the boldest attempt he had seen to poison the minds of the people. And if the jury was not satisfied that Cooper had proved his innocence regarding all points of the indictment, they must find him guilty. So charged, the jury could reasonably have feared that a verdict of not guilty would earn them arrest for sedition. Chase #151; never impartial #151; got the verdict he desired; Cooper was fined $400 and imprisoned for six months. I do not want to essay on human, oppress, Chase said as he sentenced Cooper, but I will restrain, as far as I can, all such licentious attacks on the government of the country (Cooper 1800, 46). One wonders what sort of statements by the political opposition could avoid being characterized as licentious attacks on the government. Clearly, under the Federalists' Sedition Act, all less-than-favorable discussion of government policies was prohibited. The Opposition Takes Action. As the environment in Philadelphia became more intolerant, Jefferson left for Monticello to orchestrate a response with his fellow Republicans.
As he entered Virginia, Jefferson was welcomed as a hero. At Fredericksburg an artillery company announced his arrival, and the next day a great feast was held in his honor. Virginia and the South as a whole took a different view of Jefferson and emile, the policies of the Adams administration. For example, the Sedition Act garnered only two votes in biography essay, the House of Representatives from representatives from essay naturalism, south of the and doctoral thesis, Potomac. Zola Naturalism.  Rather than the chief Jacobin in the United States, Jefferson was seen as the virtuous and patriotic vice president (Malone 1962, 380). In crafting a response, Jefferson never lost sight of the true purposes of the hated acts.
In a letter of 11 October 1798 to Stephen Thompson Mason, Jefferson correctly described the acts as merely an paper experiment on the American mind, to see how far it will bear an avowed violation of the Constitution (1854a, 258). Thus, the resolutions were not simply protests against despotic legislation but protests against zola essay, an interpretation of the Constitution that was bound to lead to consolidation. Furthermore, the Alien and Sedition Acts directly assaulted all three facets of Jefferson's constitutional thought: Whig, federalist, and republican. According to David Mayer (1994). These three essential aspects of solitude, his thought may be summarized simply. Jefferson viewed constitutions primarily as devices by which government power would be limited and essay, checked, to prevent its abuse through encroachment on individual rights (the Whig aspect of his thought). His preferred system for doing this was one in which governmental power was divided into distinct spheres (the federal aspect), each of which was in turn subdivided into distinct branches (legislative, executive, and judicial) equally accountable to the rightful majority will of the people (the republican aspect). The interrelationships #151; and, at times tensions #151; between these three essential aspects of Jefferson's constitutional thought explain his response to the particular constitutional issues and problems of his time, (xi) In the response to the acts, the biography essay, three elements of Jefferson's thought were in harmony.  The acts assaulted the individual's right to criticize the emile zola essay, conduct of government officials, ignored the mccain research paper, basic principles of federalism as the emile essay naturalism, national government assumed more power, and evinced the High Federalists' contempt for the people, who in obama research, the Federalists' view had no business meddling in the affairs of government. The Alien and Sedition Acts, however, violated especially the federal aspect of Jefferson's thought.
As the United States came of age, Jefferson saw the dangers of consolidation as perhaps the greatest peril of emile naturalism, all. Essay. In his letter of 26 December 1825 to William B. Giles, Jefferson expressed his conviction that it is but too evident, that the zola, three ruling branches of [the national government] are in difference between thesis, combination to strip their colleagues, the State authorities, of all powers reserved by them, and to exercise themselves all functions foreign and zola essay, domestic (1854b, 426-27). Jefferson firmly believed that to prevent consolidation, power should be kept as close to the people as possible. Bell Essay.  Though some states might abuse power, Jefferson reasoned that not all would fall under the spell of tyranny. But with a consolidated and abusive national government, all would suffer the same tyranny; there would be no islands of peace. As Dumas Malone points out, Jefferson never supported states' rights for emile essay, their own sake, but to safeguard the freedom of individuals, which would undoubtedly suffer in a consolidated nation (1962, 396). Hence, in drafting the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson identified the states as the proper entities of resistance. Of course, Jefferson did not invent the idea of the bell hooks biography, states as bulwarks against encroachments by the national government. Of all people, Alexander Hamilton eloquently expressed the idea in Federalist 28 . According to Hamilton, it was an zola naturalism axiom of the American system of government that the state governments will in all possible contingencies afford complete security against invasions of the public liberty by the national authority.
He continued by postulating that should the rhetorical analysis, national government pose a danger, the states could at once adopt a regular plan of opposition, in which they can combine all the resources of the emile zola, community. They can readily communicate with each other in the different states; and unite their common forces for the protection of their common liberty (Madison  1982, 137). In a little-known episode just before the Sedition Act crisis, Jefferson, responding to ap lang essay prompts, the actions of the grand jury of the federal circuit court in Richmond, followed Hamilton's wisdom of Federalist 28 and laid much of the zola naturalism, foundation on do i numbers out in, the which the Kentucky resolution would be built. Emile Zola Essay.  In the spring of 1797 the grand jury formally accused Samuel Jordan Cabell, who was the congressional representative from bell, Jefferson's district, of seditious libel. Cabell had sent a circular letter to his constituents denouncing the Adams administration and hence was accused of endeavoring, at a time of real public danger, to disseminate unfounded calumnies against the happy government of the United States, and thereby to separate the people therefrom; and to increase or produce a foreign influence, ruinous to the peace, happiness, and independence of these United States (Jefferson 1943, 315). Jefferson drafted an anonymous petition to the Virginia House of Delegates, in which he called for the punishment of the offending jurors. In the emile essay naturalism, petition, Jefferson viewed the federal grand jury's actions as violating the natural right of free correspondence, interfering with the affairs of Congress, and putting the legislative department under the feet of the solitude years, Judiciary (1943, 315).
Though James Monroe suggested to Jefferson that his protest should be sent to Congress rather than to the state legislature, Jefferson rapidly dismissed such an idea. In rejecting Monroe's advice in a letter of 7 September 1797, Jefferson explained that the emile essay, national government was claiming powers not delegated by solitude the Constitution and thus seiz[ing] all doubtful ground. We must join in zola, the scramble, or get nothing. Moreover, Jefferson understood that the difference and doctoral, federal character of the Union was at stake. Emile Zola Naturalism. He continued in his letter to Monroe by observing that it is of immense consequence that the States retain as complete authority as possible over their own citizens, rather than bowing to a foreign jurisdiction (1854a, 200).
Clearly, one year before he penned the Kentucky Resolves, Jefferson understood the very real threat of consolidation and believed that the proper place to rally Republican forces was at the state level. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Working in complete secrecy, Jefferson drafted the Kentucky resolution of 1798 between 21 July and 26 October 1798.  His original plan was for W. C. Nicholas to introduce the Resolves in North Carolina, but because of political setbacks there, Nicholas instead gave the Resolves to John Breckinridge for do i write out in an essay, introduction in Kentucky. As an independent-minded frontier state, Kentucky was the perfect forum for emile naturalism, Jefferson's resolution. Across the state, without much prompting, citizens gathered to protest the bell hooks essay, Alien and Sedition Acts. In Lexington, five thousand people #151; a crowd three times the town's population #151; assembled. Emile Zola Naturalism.  On 7 November 1798, Governor James Gerrard announced the need for a protest against all unconstitutional laws of Congress (Koch and Ammon 1948, 156.) A committee led by John Breckinridge was appointed, and the Kentucky resolution was quickly introduced. On 10 November 1798 the Resolves, with modifications, passed the biography, house with only three dissenting votes; three days later the Senate concurred. The Resolves began with the Tenth Amendment, which Jefferson described in 1791 as the foundation of the Constitution (1943, 342). The states were not united on the principles of unlimited submission to emile zola essay naturalism, their General Government; they had delegated only certain definite powers (Virginia Commission 1964, 143). Thus, whensoever the General Government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force (143).
The resolution explicitly disclaimed that the national government was the judge of its own powers. Biography Essay. Allowing it to judge its own powers would be akin to permitting an agent, rather than the emile essay, principal, to determine the breadth of the agent's authority. The law of agency at its most basic level recognizes that an agent can act as such only subject to ap lang rhetorical essay prompts, the consent and control of the principal to whom the emile essay, agent owes a fiduciary duty (see Restatement [Second] of Agency, sec. 1). Just as A, B, and years, C, the emile zola essay naturalism, partners in research paper, a business firm, decide what authority to give their agent Z, so the parties to the Constitution decide the powers of the national government. In light of such logic, Jefferson proclaimed in the resolution that each party [to the federal compact] has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the mode and measures of redress (Virginia Commission 1964, 144). For Jefferson, the people acting through their states #151; the emile essay, authentic organs of government #151; were the final arbiters of constitutional interpretation. Jefferson feared that giving the federal government the hooks essay, exclusive power to interpret the emile naturalism, Constitution through the Supreme Court would lead to arbitrary government.
As John Taylor later wrote in do i an essay, his Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated , a jurisdiction, limited by its own will, is an essay naturalism unlimited jurisdiction ( 1970, 131). Masters And Doctoral. With the states stripped of the power to construe the Constitution, the zola naturalism, enforcement of essay, constitutional limitations on the central government would be chimerical. Thus, it is not surprising that none of the convictions under the Sedition Act were appealed to the Federalist-dominated Supreme Court. The Republicans did not want to give the Court an opportunity to set a dangerous precedent. The resolution continued by spelling out why the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
With respect to the Sedition Act, the second resolve reasoned that the zola, states delegated to Congress the power to punish but a few specific crimes, such as treason, counterfeiting, and piracy. Thus, in light of the Tenth Amendment's unmistakable declaration that what is not given is obama research paper, reserved, the Sedition Act failed constitutional examination. The third resolve examined the Sedition Act in light of the First Amendment. Jefferson argued that because the First Amendment operated as a restraint only on the national government, the states retain to themselves the right of judging how far the licentiousness of emile zola essay naturalism, speech . may be abridged (Virginia Commission 1964, 14). Though today it seems obvious that the Sedition Act was a violation of the First Amendment, in 1798 that understanding was not universal, and Jefferson's argument was in the libertarian vanguard. As Leonard Levy has pointed out, the out in, Framers were nurtured on the crabbed historicism of emile naturalism, Coke and the narrow conservatism of Blackstone and thus probably did not intend to abolish the common law of seditious libel when adopting the First Amendment (1985, xv, 220-81). Original intent aside, Jefferson's First Amendment arguments were instrumental in forming the libertarian view of freedom of speech.
The fourth, fifth, and sixth resolves dealt with the Alien Friends Act. Jefferson asserted that alien friends were under the jurisdiction of the rhetorical analysis, laws of the state in which they resided. He pointed out that under the Constitution, Congress could not prohibit the zola, Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit until 1808 (Article 1, sec. 9). That reading of the Constitution's slave-import clause demonstrates Jefferson's inclination to obama research paper, read broadly the clauses limiting power. Conversely, Jefferson read the power-granting clauses narrowly.  Moreover, the act denied the aliens due process of law insofar as the president was judge, jury, and executioner. By investing the president with judicial power, the Alien Friends Act violated Article 3 of the Constitution. To Jefferson such a transgression of the separation of powers was but a sign of things to zola, come. In the ap lang analysis prompts, 1790s many Americans feared their republican experiment would end in a monarchy like the one from which they had seceded.
The seventh, eighth, and ninth resolves protested the construction of the necessary and proper clause that would give the general government unlimited power, and called upon the governor of Kentucky to transmit the Resolves to naturalism, the legislatures of the several states. The ninth resolve expressed apprehension that continued usurpation by interaction the national government could only drive these states into revolution and blood, and will furnish new calumnies against Republican Governments, and new pretexts for those who wish it to be believed, that man cannot be governed but by emile naturalism a rod of iron (Virginia Commission 1964, 149-50). The iron-rod statement exemplified Jefferson's view, as expressed in his letter of 21 June 1823 to Justice William Johnson, that man is rational and need be restrained only by moderate powers exercised by hooks essay officials chosen by their fellow citizens (1854b, 291). The Jeffersonian view of man was anathema to the Hamiltonians who, like Burke, believed that man is an essay intemperate creature whose passions forge his own fetters (Burke  1992, 69). To the Federalists, the Sedition Act exemplified a necessary restraint on 100 essay, man's unruly passions. The Kentucky resolution continued with the axiom that free government is founded in jealousy and not in confidence, because confidence is emile zola essay naturalism, every where the parent of masters thesis, despotism (Virginia Commission 1964, 150). Essay. Therefore, when dealing in questions of power then let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution (150). The resolution ended with a call to other states to express their opinions of the difference between and doctoral thesis, Alien and emile zola essay naturalism, Sedition Acts. Though the resolution expressed confidence that the co-States . will concur in declaring these acts void and biography essay, of no force, and emile zola essay naturalism, will each unite with this Commonwealth in requesting their repeal at the next session of Congress, the essay on human interaction, response, to be discussed later, was not what the Republicans expected (151). The Resolves just described were those passed by the Kentucky legislature.
Several changes had been made to the original draft written by emile Jefferson and introduced by Breckinridge. Mccain Paper. One change was the omission of the term nullification. With Hamilton and zola naturalism, others hoping for an opportunity to march on the so-called agents of Jacobinism, the use of 100 essay solitude, Jefferson's strong term might have given the hawks the opportunity they sought. In 1798 the Union was far closer to civil war than to emile zola essay, a French invasion, and talk of nullification might have provided the spark to start a national conflagration.  As passed, the Kentucky resolution also omitted Jefferson's call for a committee of conference and correspondence to foster communication among the states, which Hamilton had suggested in Federalist 28 . On Human Interaction. As in the Cabell affair, Jefferson saw no reason to emile zola, inform the Congress, inasmuch as Congress was not a party to the compact.
The Kentucky legislature apparently preferred to work within the 100 essay, generally accepted constitutional framework and emile essay naturalism, therefore shunned the creation of solitude years, a committee of correspondence. The most significant omission was Jefferson's request that each of the co-states, as a party to the compact, take measures of its own for providing that neither these acts, nor any others of the General Government not plainly and intentionally authorized by the Constitution, shall be exercised within their respective territories (Jefferson 1943, 134). Such actions would have differed greatly from emile naturalism, merely appealing to Congress for repeal of the acts; Jefferson expected the states to take active measures to thwart the execution of the Alien and Sedition Acts. And when he learned of the negative responses from the other states, he contemplated secession. Rather than relinquish liberties to ap lang analysis prompts, a consolidated national government, Jefferson was prepared for Virginians and emile zola essay naturalism, Kentuckians to sever ourselves from that union we so much value, rather than give up the rights of self-government which we have reserved, in which alone we see liberty, safety happiness (quoted in Koch and Ammon 1948, 166). Madison, who frequently served as a moderating influence on mccain, Jefferson, talked him out of moving toward secession, but the fact remains that the resolution as penned by emile Jefferson was meant to be more than a protest; Jefferson envisioned the states defying the unconstitutional acts of the national government (Banning 1995, 393).
On 17 November 1798, Jefferson sent Madison a copy of his draft of the Kentucky resolution. Jefferson wrote that. we should distinctly affirm all the important principles they contain, so as to do i write numbers, hold to that ground in future, and leave the emile zola naturalism, matter in such a train as that we may not be committed absolutely to push the matter to extremities, and yet may be free to 100 essay solitude, push as far as events will render prudent. (Jefferson 1854a, 258) That statement is noteworthy for several reasons. First, he was obviously pressing Madison to see that a similar resolution be passed in emile naturalism, Virginia. Analysis Prompts. Second, and more important, Jefferson outlined his original strategy for the Kentucky Resolves in just a few words. Emile Zola Naturalism. He did not want to be forced into a general confrontation with the national government over nullification, but intended to bell biography essay, retain the emile naturalism, option to bell essay, push as far as events permitted. Emile Zola Naturalism. In light of the do i write numbers out in, language in Jefferson's original draft, had a number of zola naturalism, states supported the resolution, it seems plausible that Jefferson might have begun drafting an ordinance of nullification for Kentucky. Madison's Virginia resolution, which was introduced in the Virginia Assembly by John Taylor, was much shorter and more moderate than Jefferson's fervent Kentucky resolution. After expressing Virginia's warm attachment to the Union, the resolution appealed to the Tenth Amendment and declared that the powers of the federal government are limited by the plain sense and intention of the bell hooks essay, instrument constituting that compact and.
that in the case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the States . have the right, and essay, are in duty bound, to interpose for 100 essay solitude, arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and zola essay, liberties appertaining to obama, them. (Virginia Commission 1964, 152) Madison did not consider interposition a proper response to every disagreement with the central government. Only when the central government's exercise of power was deliberate, palpable and dangerous should the states interpose to protect the liberties of the zola essay naturalism, people. Ap Lang Analysis Essay. It is difficult to imagine the more practical Madison employing the Jeffersonian rhetoric of the Kentucky resolution. Emile Zola Essay. Though Jefferson most assuredly intended the do i numbers an essay, Resolves to be more than protests, Madison's intention is more difficult to judge. From his statements made in the 1830s (discussed below), it appears that Madison merely intended to elucidate constitutional principles, with emphasis on the Tenth Amendment, and thereby to zola essay, encourage repeal of the acts. Considering that until the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913 the state legislatures appointed senators and thus the states as such had representation in the national government, a state protest was more likely in those days to have an effect than it would be today.
A state legislature could instruct its senators to seek repeal of legislation, and do i numbers an essay, if the senators failed to do so, the state legislature could remove them when their terms expired. The Response of the States. The state responses to emile zola, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions disappointed the Republicans. For example, Delaware considered the Resolves an unjustifiable interference with the General Government. Rhode Island declared the Alien and hooks biography, Sedition Acts to be constitutional insofar as they promoted the general welfare of the United States. Essay Naturalism. Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, and New Hampshire asserted that the solitude, Supreme Court was the essay, ultimate authority for deciding the constitutionality of acts of Congress. Massachusetts proclaimed that liberty of the press was not interfered with, because true freedom of the ap lang rhetorical analysis essay prompts, press forbade only emile zola naturalism, prior restraints. To their chagrin, Madison and Jefferson received not one favorable answer from the seven states that responded. The legislatures of the Republican-dominated southern states did not answer at all. According to Jefferson scholar Dumas Malone, the replies from the North and masters and doctoral, lack of responses from the South were not accurate gauges of public opinion.
In any event, Kentucky reaffirmed its resolution, and Madison delivered his report of 1800, which considered the responses of the emile essay, states at length and remains one of the clearest expositions of the Constitution. The tense situation wrought by the acts and by the French naval war was relieved as President Adams sought peace with France. Adams realized that the nation did not need war. Federal spending was double what it had been during Washington's last term, and do i numbers out in an essay, revolts against high taxation, such as Fries's Rebellion, convinced the president that peace was the only course to pursue. Adams's actions split his party and led to the decline of the Federalists. Pickering, the administration's chief Jacobin-hunter, was dismissed in the early summer of 1800 for attempting to thwart the president's plans for emile zola, peace. Hamilton, denied a war, felt betrayed and wrote The Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq., President of the United States . Had that pamphlet, which ruthlessly attacked President Adams, come from the pen of a Republican, it would no doubt have landed the solitude years, author in emile zola, prison for sedition. That Hamilton could get away with such an attack confirms the obama paper, partisan character of the Sedition Act. The election of 1800 was bitterly contested #151; the Federalists alleged that a vote for Jefferson was a vote against God #151; but the essay naturalism, general outrage at 100 essay, the Federalists' partisanship and their extraconstitutional actions led to the electoral victory of the Republicans and to the triumph of zola essay naturalism, their beliefs in essay on human interaction, a strict construction of the Constitution, states' rights, and freedom from taxes and debt. In February 1801, after thirty-six votes in the House of Representatives, Jefferson was elected president.
The hated Sedition Act, having lent its authority to twenty-five arrests and fourteen indictments, expired at midnight just before he took office. Jefferson ordered the emile zola, termination of years, pending prosecutions, and he pardoned persons convicted under the act. The Influence of the emile zola, Resolutions. Though the doctrines of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions are most often thought of obama mccain, as the staple of southern states' rights advocates, many states of both the North and the South have at some time either expressly approved the principles of the resolutions or acted in their spirit. What follows are but four examples.
In 1803 in the Olmstead case, the governor of Pennsylvania ordered the state's militia to defend two ladies against emile essay, service of process by any officer of any Court of the United States. That stance was not abandoned until the difference thesis, chief justice of the state court held that it was not clear the United States courts did not have jurisdiction (Kilpatrick 1957, 101-18). In 1809 Massachusetts was in an uproar regarding the Embargo Act and its enforcement. The commonwealth legislature passed the following resolution: That the said act of emile zola essay, Congress . [is] . in the opinion of this Legislature in many respects, unjust, oppressive and unconstitutional, and not legally binding on the citizens of this State (Kilpatrick 1957, 125-31). In 1820, when Ohio was fighting against the unconstitutional Bank of the United States, it recognized and approved the doctrines asserted by the Legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky, in their resolutions of November and December, 1798, and January 1800 #151; and do consider that their principles have been recognized and adopted by a majority of the American people (Kilpatrick 1957, 144-58). South Carolina embraced the doctrines of the Resolves more firmly than any other state. The impetus for the state's espousal of nullification was the enactment of protective tariffs. As an obama mccain agricultural state that sold its crops on the world market, South Carolina essentially bartered with Europe, exchanging agricultural commodities for manufactured goods. Zola Essay. Because of the tariff, South Carolina paid much more for those goods and also feared a trade war in which Europe would retaliate against the American tariffs by placing duties on southern exports. South Carolina's legislature rightly complained that the North discarded the teaching of the masters and doctoral thesis, classical economists regarding free trade whenever a factory was planned. Had the offending tariffs been imposed to emile zola essay naturalism, pay the analysis essay, national debt, South Carolina would not have protested.
But because the avowed purpose of the tariff was the zola naturalism, perpetuation of the American system of industrial protection, South Carolinians took themselves to have been wronged. Protection and redistribution of wealth for ap lang prompts, internal improvements were unconstitutional in their eyes. At the emile zola essay naturalism, center of the movement for nullification was the same Thomas Cooper who had earned the 100 essay solitude years, wrath of the Federalists in the 1790s for his opposition to essay naturalism, the Adams administration. Cooper served as president of the South Carolina College during the 1820s. As the 100 essay, schoolmaster of states' rights (to borrow a phrase from Dumas Malone), Cooper taught South Carolina about the dangers of consolidation. In 1827, as the tariff controversy grew, Cooper publicly questioned the zola essay, benefit of the Union at a time when such talk raised eyebrows even in do i write out in, the Palmetto state. In a fervid speech, he described the South as the perennial loser and emile zola, the North as the gainer in an unequal alliance. Viewing the question as a choice between separation and suppression, Cooper prophetically averred that South Carolina would in the near future be compelled to calculate the 100 essay solitude, value of our union. According to Malone, the idea that the South should withdraw from an unprofitable Union received its first extensive advertising as a result of that speech (1961, 309-10). Zola Essay Naturalism. 
Amid the controversy over the protective tariff, South Carolina called a special convention in November 1832 and actually passed an ordinance of nullification in essay interaction, response to the 1828 Tariff of Abominations and the Tariff of 1832. Notably, South Carolina took its action in a convention of the people acting in their sovereign capacity, just as it had when it entered the federal Union. The nullification was not an act of the legislature.  Margaret Coit succinctly sums up South Carolina's action: Nullification did not suspend a law for the nation, but only within the state that protested. It was not an end in itself, but a method of emile zola, appeal. It gave opportunity for three-quarters of the ap lang rhetorical analysis prompts, states in convention to determine whether or not to confer the questioned power upon the Union by constitutional amendment.
The nullifying state would then have to essay naturalism, obey #151; or secede (1991, 188). The greatest champion of what many called the South Carolina doctrine was John C. Calhoun. Clyde Wilson, the editor of Calhoun's papers, writes that Calhoun began his career as, and always considered himself to do i write numbers out in, be, a Jeffersonian Republican (1992, xix). The principles of the emile essay naturalism, Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were his guiding light as his state faced a belligerent President Andrew Jackson. Writing to Boiling Hall on masters thesis, 13 February 1832, Calhoun remarked that we are certainly more United against emile essay, the Tariff, than we ever have been; and, I think, better disposed to enhance the old Republican doctrines of ap lang essay prompts, 98, which can save the Constitution (Calhoun 1978, 553). Jefferson himself agreed with Calhoun on the tariff and emile essay naturalism, even prepared Virginia's own protests of 1825.
As Robert Y. Hayne remarked in a speech to hooks, the Senate in 1830, the South Carolina doctrine was not an innovation but the good old Republican doctrine of zola essay naturalism, '98 (Hayne 1830, 28). To many patriotic South Carolinians it was the last and best chance to preserve the bell biography, Union. In his South Carolina Exposition, Calhoun wrote that the state had a sacred duty to interpose #151; a duty to herself #151; to the Union #151; to present, and future generations #151; and to the cause of essay, liberty over the world, to arrest the progress of a usurpation which, if not arrested, must, in its consequences, corrupt public morals and obama mccain research, destroy the liberty of the country (Calhoun  1992, 361). For Calhoun the question revolved not around the dollars and cents of the emile zola essay naturalism, tariff, though South Carolina felt that sting as much as any state, but around the obama paper, future of liberty in the republic. Andrew Jackson, on the other hand, despised the idea of nullification and was willing to go to war over it. Rumors abounded in Washington that he had ordered the arrest of Calhoun and other South Carolina representatives.
Jackson then surrounded South Carolina with federal troops in an effort to zola essay, maintain the supremacy of the Union at all costs. Fortunately, a compromise was crafted at the last minute in essay on human, the Senate #151; by Henry Clay, the zola essay naturalism, father of the American System #151; that gradually lowered import duties. South Carolina accepted it and repealed the ordinance of nullification. Obama Paper.  Not until South Carolina seceded after the election of Abraham Lincoln was a state to go farther in accordance with the emile zola essay naturalism, principles of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions. Of course, it is do i numbers out in, debatable whether the South Carolina doctrine constituted faithful adherence to the principles of the resolutions. The old Jeffersonian Republican John Randolph supported the Carolina doctrine, grandiloquently stating that if because of senescence he could not participate in the possible armed conflict, he would at least be borne, like Muley Moluc, in emile essay, a litter to the field of battle and die in out in, your ranks (quoted in Houston  1967, 120-21). But apart from the approbation of the eccentric old Virginian, South Carolina received universal condemnation. Virginia reaffirmed the emile essay naturalism, principle of 1798 but made clear that Madison's Virginia resolution did not countenance South Carolina's actions. In his waning years, Madison also denied any relationship between the principles of 1798 and the Carolina doctrine. In a letter of 29 August 1834 to Edward Coles, Madison characterized the Carolina doctrine as an anarchical principle that has the effect of ap lang rhetorical essay prompts, putting powder under the Constitution Union, and a match in the hand of every party, to blow them up at emile essay, pleasure (Madison 1910, 540-41).
In April 1830, Madison responded directly to Hayne, who had sent him a copy of speeches espousing nullification. The father of the Constitution rebuked his young understudy and asserted that the Virginia resolution contemplated only measures known to the Constitution (1910, 388). According to Madison, if a state considered a law unconstitutional, it could appeal to the Supreme Court, urge impeachment of offending officials, or in the last resort seek to amend the 100 essay solitude, Constitution. Only in extreme cases of oppression did Madison recognize that a state would be absolve[d] . from the Constitutional Compact to which it is a party (1910, 383). Clearly, the Resolves, as used in 1798, did not sanction the zola, actions of South Carolina. Virginia and Kentucky did not attempt to interfere with federal officials or with the operation of the hated acts. Studies of the contemporary grassroots protests also indicate that the years, people did not countenance secession or nullification as they demanded redress (Smith 1970). As James Jackson Kilpatrick has pointed out, the refusal to consider more drastic means might have reflected the impending expiration of the emile essay, Sedition Act in 1801 rather than a lack of innovative thinking (1957, 85-86).
In the essay on human, same vein, one must question whether the inaction comported with the spirit of the Resolves or whether, when confronted by the objurgations of the Northern states, Virginia and Kentucky abandoned any thoughts of further action, declining to emile essay naturalism, push harder because of the staunch opposition. In his draft of the obama mccain paper, Kentucky resolution, Jefferson seems to have envisioned disobedience when he wrote that the zola naturalism, co-states should enact measures to prevent the execution of the Alien and Sedition Acts within their respective territories. Moreover, though Madison persuaded him otherwise, Jefferson questioned the value of the Union in 1799 insofar as he expressed a preference for secession over the relinquishment of the rights of self-government. The states that responded to the Resolves also interpreted them more broadly than did the aged Madison. Why would several of those states have responded that the Supreme Court was the do i write out in, final arbiter of constitutional questions if the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were viewed as mere complaints? Had the southern states responded favorably to the Resolves and emile zola, had Adams's popularity been greater (thus diminishing the chance of a revolution at the ballot box), the Revolution of bell biography essay, 1800 might not have been bloodless. Implications for the Present.
Whether one approves of the Carolina doctrine or not, the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions highlight a grave flaw in the Constitution of 1787: it does not explicitly provide an umpire to settle disputes between the states and the central government. If the Supreme Court is the ultimate arbiter of the Constitution, as the naturalism, Court unanimously proclaimed in Cooper v. Aaron (358 U.S. 1 ), then the essay on human interaction, caprice of the national government and not the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Clearly, if the national government is the judge of its own powers, it will construe them broadly and emile zola, dispose of any hopes for limited government.  Jefferson inferred that in the absence of an umpire, the parties to difference between masters, the compact are the ultimate arbiters of the naturalism, Constitution. Numbers. Although his reasoning is sound even without a written provision in the Constitution, an zola amendment to the Constitution is needed to difference between masters and doctoral, end the controversy once and for all. (See the appendix for a proposed amendment.) Unfortunately, Congress is not likely to propose an amendment that would divest the national government of the luxury of determining the zola, breadth of its own powers. That unsurmountable barrier brings us to yet another problem with the Constitution: it contains no provision for the states to propose amendments except by a convention that could treat the Constitution as a blank slate. Currently, amendments may be proposed in two ways: two-thirds of both houses of Congress may propose amendments to the states, or two-thirds of the states may petition Congress for a constitutional convention. Under either method, no amendment is ratified unless three-fourths of the state legislatures or conventions approve it. Do I Write An Essay. As William Quirk and Robert Wilcox (1998) have explained, Article 5 of the Constitution as originally drafted by Madison eschewed the dangers of a constitutional convention and forced Congress to emile essay naturalism, submit amendments on the application of two thirds of the Legislatures of the several States (18). As the Philadelphia convention prepared to obama paper, adjourn, Gouverneur Morris suggested the never-used and dangerous convention method that we now have.
Though Madison noted that the convention method might cause difficulties, he did not put up much of a fight, and thus the national government became the de facto agent of constitutional change. Under a Madisonian amendment process, the states #151; as the parties to the compact #151; could confer among themselves and offer amendments to the Constitution to curb the national government. Such an amendment procedure would obviate the need for more radical measures, because the states would have a voice in revising the emile zola, Constitution in order to defend the exercise of the reserved powers and the liberties of the people. Essay. Article 5 should be amended to correspond with Madison's original draft. But what are the states to do when a constitutional provision is in zola essay naturalism, place and the national government ignores it? For example, what if a modern version of the Sedition Act were passed by Congress and signed by the president? The First Amendment is already perfectly clear that Congress shall make no law . abridging freedom of speech.
This example demonstrates the weakness of any amendment process when the national government remains the judge of essay, its own powers. The parties to the compact cannot reverse the victories of consolidation until the states claim a role in defining what powers are delegated and what powers are reserved. The amendment specified in zola, the appendix would shift the power of interpretation while acknowledging the sectional differences that existed in Jefferson's time and that persist as the nation approaches the new millennium (see Cawthon 1997). Before any such amendment is added to interaction, the Constitution, however, the spirit of 1776 must be rekindled in the people. Congress will never propose amendments that surrender the discretion of the national government to interpret the zola, Constitution or that give the states a role in suggesting amendments unless a great popular demand arises. A revival of the spirit that animated the Revolution of solitude years, 1800 is needed again today. During the crisis of the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson wrote in letter of 12 March 1799 to Thomas Lomax: The spirit of 1776 is not dead. It has only been slumbering.
The body of the American people is substantially republican. Zola Essay Naturalism. But their virtuous feelings have been played on by some fact with more fiction; they have been the dupes of artful maneuvers, and rhetorical analysis prompts, made for a moment to be willing instruments in forging chains for themselves. (1854a, 300) Like the emile zola essay naturalism, early Americans who supported the unconstitutional acts of the Federalists, modern Americans have been dupes in forging their own chains.  Americans support programs concocted by the national government, such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid, which render the recipients dependent on the national government. Entitlements are now so pervasive that they account for more than half of the mccain paper, national budget (Seib 1996, A16). Hilaire Belloc's predictions about the servile state have come true. Emile Zola Essay Naturalism.  The fundamental question is whether the spirit of 1776 can be revived.
The leaders of both major political parties today agree that the present entitlements should be saved; their disagreements concern merely how to save them. In the twentieth century a progression of New Deals, Fair Deals, Great Societies, wars, and social upheavals has created the current Leviathan. Hollow victories such as the so-called Reagan revolution have left only do i write numbers out in an essay, debt and emile zola essay naturalism, growing social programs in their wake. For true change to take place, Americans must once again conceive of their history as a struggle to create and maintain real freedom. Part of that reconceptualization would entail making a place for the Kentucky and difference between masters and doctoral thesis, Virginia resolutions in the pantheon of American charters. The resolutions articulate the fundamental principles of our government in an eloquent yet logical manner; in their import, they rank second only to essay naturalism, the Constitution. For Americans who would recreate a limited federal government of enumerated powers #151; the government created by difference masters the Founders #151; the resolutions can serve as an enduring inspiration. * William J. Watkins, Jr. is emile naturalism, a student at the University of South Carolina School of Law and a member of the solitude, staff of the South Carolina Law Review . 1. At issue were (1) British troops still on American soil in the Northwest, despite the essay naturalism, 1783 Treaty of Paris; (2) restrictions on American commerce more onerous than those borne by the colonies before the Revolution; and thesis, (3) the British Order in Council of 6 November 1793, which led to widespread depredations on American commerce and to the confiscation of anything coming to or going from the French West Indies.
For accounts of the Jay Treaty and events leading to the Jay mission, see Bemis 1923 and emile naturalism, Combs 1970. 2. Evincing a spirit of essay on human interaction, reconciliation, Adams originally wanted Madison to join the emile zola essay naturalism, others, but the cabinet threatened to resign if Madison were chosen (Sharp 1993, 164-65). 3. Between. Pro-French factions in the United States were not convinced that X, Y, and Z were indeed acting on behalf of the French government or officials. Jefferson in zola essay, his letter of 29 January 1799 described the difference between thesis, event as cooked up with the essay, swindlers . Difference Between Masters And Doctoral. made to appear as the French Government (1854a, 274). 4. There was a W (Nicholas Hubbard), but he made only a brief appearance and therefore is often left out of accounts of the incident. The identities of X, Y, and Z were Jean Conrad Hottinguer, Pierre Bellamy, and Lucien Hauteval (Stinchcombe 1980, 115). 5. Historians estimate that in two years, Talleyrand received bribes totaling 14 million francs for such actions as expediting treaties and guaranteeing immunity for emile zola essay, neutrals (Elkins and McKitrick 1993, 568). 6. The Democratic-Republican societies, which sprang up in the wake of the French Revolution, especially worried the Federalists.
Washington attributed the Whiskey Rebellion to them. Obama Mccain Research Paper. Members of the societies fervently believed that if the monarchs of Europe could combine to overturn the French Revolution, they could do the same to the American Revolution. Several societies helped to arm French privateers, and most of them encouraged American statesmen to emile zola essay, emulate the solitude years, virtues of the governing bodies of France (see Foner 1976). 7. Zola Essay Naturalism. The decisive event in precipitating the rupture was the American publication of Thomas Paine's Rights of Man . Jefferson, sending the book to the printer, enclosed a note expressing pleasure that something was at length to be publicly said against the political heresies which had of late sprung up among us. He intended the bell biography essay, note to remain private, but the printer published the remarks as a preface to the book. Adams rightly took heresies to refer to emile zola essay, his Discourses on Davila , in which he condemned the do i, French Revolution (Peterson 1976, 57). 8. Though Jefferson continually expressed his wishes for the success of the French Revolution, as in the letter of 3 January 1793 to William Short (just quoted), Jefferson's only live exposure to that revolution occurred during its least violent and most moderate phase. With an ocean separating him from the events, Jefferson (and many other Republicans) formed an idealized picture of the French Revolution that did not correspond to reality. Conor Cruise O'Brien's observation is appropriate: The only safe way of maintaining American enthusiasm for the French Revolution was to keep the French Revolution at naturalism, a distance, seen through a warm haze. Any whiff of the real thing was fatal (1996, 178).
9. For the full text of the acts, see Smith 1956, 435-42. 10. See, for obama paper, example, Madison's letter of 8 February 1799 to Jefferson (Madison 1991, 29) and zola, Jefferson's letter of 5 April 1798 to bell essay, Madison (Jefferson 1854a, 231). 11. Sectional voting patterns developed long before the Sedition Act controversy, with New England showing the emile zola essay naturalism, greatest cohesion (Bell 1973, 17-31).
12. The best evidence of Jefferson's political principles during the Sedition Act crisis can be found in his letter of 26 January 1799 to Elbridge Gerry, in which he professes his belief in the Constitution as ratified by the states, the necessity of preserving state powers, the evil of debt and standing armies, the benefits of an essay, free trade, the avoidance of entangling alliances, freedom of religion, and essay naturalism, the success of the hooks essay, French Revolution (Jefferson 1854a, 266-74). 13. For Jefferson, resistance to consolidation did not stop at the state level. In a letter of 12 June 1816 to Samuel Kerchival, Jefferson wrote: We should thus marshall our government into, 1, the general federal republic for all concerns foreign and federal; 2, that of the State, for what relates to our own citizens exclusively; 3, the county republics, for emile naturalism, the duties and concerns of the county; and 4, the ward republics, for the small, and yet numerous and ap lang rhetorical analysis prompts, interesting concerns of the neighborhood (1854b, 13). 14. For excellent accounts of the Cabell affair and its influence on Jefferson, see Mayer (1994, 199-203) and Koch (1950, 182-84). 15. As Adrienne Koch and Harry Ammon have observed, secrecy was necessary because of the political situation. Had Adams learned that Jefferson was the author of the Kentucky Resolves, Adams might have had Jefferson arrested and tried for essay naturalism, sedition (1948, 149-50). 16.
For a thorough discussion of the protests of the Kentucky yeomanry, see Smith 1970, 221. 17. I am indebted to David Mayer for this observation. See Mayer 1994, chap. 7. 18.
The term nullification was used in essay on human, the Kentucky resolution of 1799, but by emile zola essay that time tensions had been relieved somewhat. 19. Of course, the idea that a state might leave the Union if the Union did not secure the safety and happiness of its people dates to the ratification of the Constitution. Bell Biography. For example, in its ratification message, Virginia declared that the powers granted under the Constitution being derived from the People of the United States may be resumed by them whensoever the same shall be perverted to their injury or oppression (Virginia Commission 1964, 71). Likewise, New York averred that the powers of Government may be reassumed by the People, whensoever it shall become necessary to their Happiness (76). 20. Essay Naturalism. As early as 1798, Madison appreciated the distinction between the legislature and a convention. In a letter of write numbers an essay, 29 December 1798 to Thomas Jefferson, Madison postulated that because the states ratified the Constitution by conventions, a convention was the proper assembly for judging infractions of the emile zola, compact (Madison 1991, 191). 21. Ap Lang Analysis Essay. When South Carolina repealed the ordinance of nullification regarding the tariff, it passed another to void the Force Bill, which had been enacted to give the national government power to collect tariff revenue by force if necessary. Emile Zola. With the compromise, however, the point became moot.
For discussions of the nullification controversy, see Bancroft 1966 and 100 essay, Houston  1967. 22. A prime example is the commerce clause. The Court has interpreted that clause as giving the emile zola naturalism, national government the rhetorical analysis essay, power to zola essay naturalism, pass comprehensive civil rights laws ( Heart of numbers out in, Atlanta Motel v. United States , 379 U.S. 241 ) and criminal statutes ( Perez v. United, States , 402 U.S. Zola. 146 ). Though the case ( United States v. Lopez , 115 Sup. Ct. 1624 ) in which the Court struck down the Gun-Free School Zones Act as having no substantial relation to interstate commerce offers some hope of narrowing the scope of the commerce clause, commentators have noted that the Court's most expansive precedents would be upheld under the test established in Lopez (see Hagen 1996, 1388 n. 209). 23. Occasionally the people of the states do protest and prevail.
See Printz v. United States (117 Sup. Difference Masters. Ct. 2365 ), in which the Supreme Court struck down an interim provision of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act requiring local law enforcement officials to conduct background checks. According to emile essay, Justice Scalia, who wrote for the Court, residual state sovereignty was also implicit . in the Constitution's conferral upon Congress of not all governmental powers, but only discrete, enumerated ones . which implication was rendered express by the Tenth Amendment (2376-77). Just after Printz was decided, South Carolina protested the Driver's Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) in essay, the federal courts and won a permanent injunction ( Condon v. Emile Zola Naturalism. Reno , 972 F. Rhetorical. Supp. 977 ). The DPPA requires that a State department of motor vehicles . shall not knowingly disclose or otherwise make available to any person or entity personal information about any individual obtained by the department in connection with a motor vehicle record.
South Carolina, already having a statute regulating access to motor vehicle records, took umbrage at the federal intrusion and sought a remedy in the federal district court. Relying on the Tenth Amendment, Judge Dennis Shedd found that the DPPA exceeds the power of the national government. The case is currently on appeal to the Fourth Circuit. 24. Emile Zola Naturalism. According to Belloc ( 1977), The future of industrial society . left to its own discretion, is a future in which subsistence and security shall be guaranteed for the proletariat, but shall be guaranteed at the expense of the old political freedom and by the establishment of ap lang analysis essay prompts, that proletariat in a status really, though not nominally, servile (198).
The following is an example of an amendment that would embody Jefferson and Madison's principles in the Resolves of 1798 as well as John C. Emile. Calhoun's contribution to constitutional theory. Section 1 . Ap Lang Rhetorical Analysis Prompts. The Constitutional Commission shall settle questions presented by the several States concerning the constitutionality of measures or actions taken by the government of the United States. Section 2 . The Constitutional Commission shall be composed of one Commissioner from each State chosen every second year by the people of the emile essay, several States from two candidates chosen by the State Legislature, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for the electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature; each Commissioner shall have one vote. Section 3 . Ap Lang. No person except a natural born citizen shall be eligible to the office of Commissioner; nor shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the zola essay naturalism, United States, and been nine years a resident of that State for which he shall be chosen. No person shall be elected to the office of Commissioner more than four times. Section 4 . When vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the hooks biography essay, Legislature, which shall choose two candidates to present to the people to fill the vacancy. Section 5 . The Constitutional Commission shall assemble at least once in every year, and zola, such meeting shall begin at noon on essay on human interaction, the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. The Constitutional Commission shall choose their Chairman and other officers.
The Commission shall be the zola essay naturalism, judge of the election returns and qualifications of its own members, and three-fourths of its members shall constitute a quorum to do business. The Commission may determine the rules of its proceedings. The Commission shall keep a journal of ap lang prompts, its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same. Section 6 . The Commissioners shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. No Commissioner shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States. Section 7 . Whenever the Chairman of the Constitutional Commission shall receive petitions from one-fifth of the legislatures of the several States requesting a ruling on the constitutionality of a specific measure or action of the government of the United States, the emile naturalism, Commission shall convene. The act or measure of the national government shall be void and of no force if three-fourths of the 100 essay solitude years, Commissioners present vote against its constitutionality, or if three-fourths of the Commissioners from one section of the essay naturalism, United States shall vote against the constitutionality of the act or measure. Section 8 . The three sections of the United States are defined as follows. The Western Section shall be composed of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
The Southern Section shall be composed of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The Northern Section shall be composed of obama, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Whenever new States are admitted to the Union, the emile zola essay naturalism, Commission shall make the necessary modifications to the sectional compositions. Section 9 . The Constitutional Commission shall not sit as a Convention as prescribed in Article 5 of the Constitution of the United States. Ammon, Harry. 1973.
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1997. The South as an Independent Nation. Southern Partisan (third quarter). Coit, Margaret, 1991. John C. Calhoun: American Portrait. Essay Interaction. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press. Combs, Jerald A. 1970. The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the naturalism, Founding Fathers . Berkeley: University of California Press. Cooper, Thomas. 1800.
An Account of the Trial of Thomas Cooper. Philadelphia: John Boiren. Elkins, Stanley, and Eric McKitrick. Masters And Doctoral Thesis. 1993. Zola Essay. The Age of Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press. Foner, Philip S., ed. Research Paper. 1976. The Democratic-Republican Societies, 1790 #151; 1800: A Documentary Sourcebook of Constitutions, Declarations, Addresses, Resolutions, and Toasts . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. Hagen, Eric W. 1996.
United States v. Lopez : Artificial Respiration for the Tenth Amendment. Pepperdine Law Review 23 (May): 1363-93. Hayne, Robert Y. 1830. Speech of naturalism, Mr. Hayne of South Carolina in the Senate of the United States January 21, 1830 . Portland. Houston, David Franklin.  1967. A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina . Essay Interaction. Reprint. New York: Russell and Russell. Jaffa, Harry V. 1994. Original Intent and the Framers of the Constitution: A Disputed Question . Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway. Jefferson, Thomas.
1853. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by emile zola essay naturalism H. Essay On Human. A. Washington. Vol. Zola Essay. 3. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1854a. On Human. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by H. Emile Naturalism. A. Between Masters And Doctoral. Washington. Vol 4. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and naturalism, Maury. ---------. 1854b.
The Writings of Thomas Jefferson . Edited by difference thesis H. Emile Naturalism. A. Washington. Vol. 7. Washington, D.C.: Taylor and Maury. ---------. 1943. The Complete Jefferson . Edited by Saul K. Padover. New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pierce. Ketcham, Ralph L. Difference Thesis. 1963. France and American Politics, 1763-1793. Political Science Quarterly 78 (June): 198-222.
Kilpatrick, James Jackson. 1957. The Sovereign States: Notes of a Citizen of Virginia . Chicago: Regnery. Koch, Adriene. 1950. Zola Essay Naturalism. Jefferson and Madison: The Great Collaboration. New York: Knopf. Koch, Adriene, and Harry Ammon.
1948. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: An Episode in Jefferson's and Madison's Defense of Civil Liberties. William and Mary Quarterly 5 (April): 145-76. Levy, Leonard W. 1985. Emergence of masters and doctoral, a Free Press . New York: Oxford University Press. Madison, James. 1910. The Writings of James Madison . Edited by Gaillard Hunt.
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O'Brien, Conor Cruise. 1996. The Long Affair: Thomas Jefferson and the French Revolution, 1785-1800 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Peterson, Merrill D. Obama Paper. 1976. Adams and Jefferson: A Revolutionary Dialogue . Athens: University of Georgia Press. Quirk, William J., and Robert M. Wilcox. 1998. Judicial Tyranny and Constitutional Change. Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture (February).
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Analysis of a Prose Passage by Ralph Waldo Emerson Essay Sample. Did you know that the Dead Sea Scrolls also known as the greatest archaeological discovery of the 20th century were discovered in 1946? The Dead Sea Scrolls are Hebrew and are very interesting to study because of the emile essay naturalism, vest history included. Bell Essay! The Scrolls are important because you can see what the Hebrews were writing about around 100 BC and zola essay naturalism possibly why the Scrolls were being written. Did you know that the Dead Sea Scrolls also known as the greatest archaeological discovery of the 20th century were discovered in 1946? The Dead Sea Scrolls are Hebrew and are very interesting to study because of the vest history included. The Scrolls are important because you can see what the Hebrews were writing about around 100 BC and possibly why the Scrolls were being written.
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Writing Process Part I: Prewriting Ideas As you learned in Unit 1, Mississippi. All rights reserved , Copyright , Essay 1171 Words | 6 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Emile Zola Essay Naturalism? Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages.
Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Research Paper? Then answer the emile zola naturalism, questions below. The qualities of on human, a hero . Emile Zola Essay Naturalism? include selflessness, having the inspiration to paper, be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is zola essay naturalism, easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work. Essay Interaction? He was born in zola naturalism, Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the 100 essay, Koran and mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages.
Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils. Emile Essay? These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on bell hooks essay, the distribution coefficient which is a measurement of how much of zola essay, a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. all want to have a place to belong in out in, the social jungle that is middle school. But in my opinion it’s not worth all the drama and trouble that . it will most likely create. Emile Zola Essay? For instance you could be suspended, fail your classes, become addicted on drugs, or worse, and these are the things that will cause you to fail and mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to and doctoral thesis, teach you how to deal with the unfairness in life.
When I first started. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. age of expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and emile zola, decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of between and doctoral thesis, Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is mainly used in the columns and the base appears to be gilded in essay, bronze. Research Paper? Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages.
of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. When that occurs the retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Essay Naturalism? Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages.
Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is masters, seldom good for essay naturalism, anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. Ap Lang Analysis Prompts? As early as the emile, . founding of the do i, United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and essay, time is available.
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I don’t even know what that means! All I do know is that those stinking Democrats support it, which . Emile Essay? means I automatically have to be against it. On Human Interaction? You can’t possibly expect me to actually have an opinion on something as complicated as this! The basis for essay, the things I oppose is masters and doctoral, simply spite. Spite for emile zola, the Democrats. If a Democrat supports it, I oppose it! Using your brain to support or oppose things is just way too overrated nowadays. I own a private. Democratic Party , George H. W. Bush , George W. Obama Mccain Paper? Bush 1069 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Emile Zola Naturalism? Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the Distinction and High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation.
The introduction in bell hooks biography essay, the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. The Symbol of a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and emile naturalism, racism are a part of living and people will always be . confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded? Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the bad stories others heard about them? In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about this theme and she uses the mockingbird is a symbol. A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Mockingbirds are the ap lang essay, innocent.
Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is essay naturalism, known for his conservative views that can be attributed in essay on human interaction, part to emile, his coming from do i numbers out in a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages.
BBI20 Assignment#5 Opinion Essay on Inventions 1st March 2011 In my opinion , the emile essay naturalism, most important invention of . all time in the history of interaction, human civilization and enterprise is the internet. Why the internet? Simply because I believe this invention has made the emile essay naturalism, world a better place. In almost everything we do, we need the Internet. Bell? Whether it is to look for a job, research for a project or even find love. The Internet is a dominant factor that plays an emile zola essay, important role in our lives. Numbers Out In An Essay? We just simply.
Better , History of the Internet , Hyperlink 1419 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to emile zola essay, death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and you can’t see any point in rhetorical analysis essay prompts, delaying the inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in naturalism, cases that involve unbearable suffering or.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. ?Question: Analyze how the writer influenced you to change your opinion throughout the text about difference between masters and doctoral thesis, a significant idea. Shakespeare wrote . Macbeth in the 16th century as tribute to king James the emile zola essay naturalism, first. At the masters and doctoral, start of the text king Duncan made me believe that anyone could be a good leader, Duncan effectively portrayed this idea because he put the needs of emile, his country in front of his own. Throughout the text Shakespeare influenced my opinion to change when Macbeth came into ap lang power as he cared about no. Duncan I of Scotland , James I of England , KILL 849 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and the conclusion is quite weak, but there are many good . points to zola, make on the way the obama research paper, essay is structured and the way the information is put across. All my comments are highlighted thus. A good introduction. • Does the emile essay, job of clearly defining the difference masters and doctoral, topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed.
See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and naturalism, context of your article. Thesis? Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Emile? Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives.
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Adolescence , Novel , Question 1140 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to obama mccain research paper, summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the emile zola, second part of the essay , I will analyze the write, concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the zola, concerned clinical issue / practice. Rhetorical Analysis Essay Prompts? Lastly, I am going to zola essay, recommend strategies to bell biography, facilitate my learning.
Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. ? Opinion Essay Options Karisa Horsch Professor R. Sorrell HIST 136; Opinion 2, 3, 6 March . 7th 2013 Industrialists Vs. Workers Opinion Option #2 Today, the United States is known for being a big, beautiful powerhouse of complex industrial systems and naturalism, with these industrial systems, bridges have been built, factories have been produced, inventions and workers have been put to work and thus, a new age industry arise. It’s hard to exactly pin-point. 19th century , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1048 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of writing styles that provides a detailed . On Human? description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Zola? Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. Do I Write Out In? 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to zola essay, escape to for relaxation.
They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages. Opinion Essay: Is Television Good or Bad for American Society? Assignment taught by Dr. Obama Mccain Paper? Sally Lozada.
PART I Throughout the next four modules, you will plan and essay naturalism, develop an argumentative essay . Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the between masters and doctoral thesis, Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an interesting form of entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, one’s television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to emile zola naturalism, help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the analysis essay, only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and essay, true system and do i write out in an essay, will likely be what your TCC instructors require of emile zola essay, you. 100 Essay Solitude Years? Audience and emile naturalism, Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument?
3. What’s the topic sentence of the 100 essay, writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to show these features. Emile Naturalism? Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the years, most debated topics of today in America is Health Care.
How can we make it . better? How can we fix the major flaws? How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. I’m just your average citizen and I figured it out.
The answer to zola essay, all these questions, and many more asked by 100 essay solitude, Americans, is very simple. Emile Zola Essay Naturalism? Adopt a “Socialized Health Care” system just like the one that’s been used. Health care , Health care in the United States , Health economics 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by Marcel Proust speaks of discovering what?s right in essay on human, front of you by seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to emile zola essay, See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an solitude, awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age.
Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in emile essay naturalism, shaping the effects of your world view. A World view is described by many different people in essay on human interaction, various ways for zola essay naturalism, example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and and doctoral, Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. that a person should only set fairly easy and emile essay naturalism, attainable goals for themselves. Now my attitude is rhetorical analysis essay, that you should pursue what makes you happy, and you . shouldn’t let struggles stop you. Emile Zola Essay? When I read examples about rhetorical essay prompts, following a passion, overcoming a fear, and being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. In the book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS.
Blake was on a vacation trip in emile essay naturalism, Argentina when he realized the locals tremendous need for shoes. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the write numbers out in an essay, Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages.
small, cute animals are “slowly crushed or impaled by women wearing heels,” reports David Michael (2010). Emile Zola? These videos were banned in between masters thesis, 1999 by the Supreme . Emile? Court, until the federal law had overreached, and the law was overturned. These acts are clear examples of cruelty towards animals, and can never be truly justified. If we take the rights steps, in a warranted and honest manner, then we can stop animal abuse, and essay, save future species from an emile essay naturalism, unruly and unjustified future as slaves to man-kind. . Animal cruelty , Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights 1055 Words | 3 Pages. Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . Difference Between Masters And Doctoral Thesis? – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in emile zola, a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the 100 essay solitude years, author’s outlook and personality. - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and essay, business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and the axis around which . Essay? most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of naturalism, administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the bell, surface of emile naturalism, a field that is brimming with professional opportunities. The pursuit of a Master’s in solitude, Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own.
Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by emile essay naturalism, the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of citizen participation . in government because of 100 essay, how each empire utilized it to control the people. However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over the people in more ways than one. Emile Essay Naturalism? In addition, the use of militaries to bell biography essay, control the population and zola essay, outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is masters thesis, a form of expression; it is zola essay naturalism, art, and hooks essay, what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at a song’s value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to reveal. Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and universal impact. Emile Essay Naturalism? Closely linked to a song’s theme is the song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages.
How to difference between masters, write an argumentative essay. Give your opinion . Argumentative Essay How to write an Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, Format, . Examples , Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in an argumentative essay is the position of proving that the presented point of view is the correct one and emile naturalism, possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions . Ap Lang? The author through proper reasoning, inducting and zola essay, making conclusions, must prove the assertions or the theories of the and doctoral, argumentative essay . If the author. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about emile essay, what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the biography, handle the situations. Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to essay naturalism, feelings of fear, helplessness, depression, and competence. By applying his theories and ideas I will analyze the article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. Wallace and Tim Waters. On Human? In the article by emile zola essay naturalism, Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages.
Definition Essay How to write a Definition Essay : Outline, Format, Structure, Examples , Topics Writing a . definition essay A definition essay is an essay concentrated on the explanation of the meaning of a definite term. The term may be analyzed from the position of one and only meaning and years, also from the position of subjectivity of the person defining the term. This classification divides the emile zola essay, words into two groups: •material terms – a table, a door, a printer. •spiritual terms – friendship. Causality , Cosmological argument , Definition 2125 Words | 7 Pages. ? ESSAY IS A WRITTEN EXPRESSION OF WRITER'S DIRECT OPINION . THAT OPINION IS BASED ON OUR BELIEFS. now belief is of . Research Paper? further two types: 1. Emile Zola Essay? changeable (where there is 100 essay solitude years, tendency to change the opinion ) 2. non-changeable ( opinion is in just yes or no; agree or disagree) basically the changeable opinion is our thesis statement. * every thesis statement is opinion but every opinion is not thesis statement. types of essays ' topics: 1. Naturalism? open topics on which writer's own tendency to prove his opinion. Belief , Creative writing , Critical thinking 474 Words | 2 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the write numbers out in, word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on emile, honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an difference, opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by emile, Shonagon. Ap Lang Rhetorical Essay? Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.
Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and that he would like to essay, be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. The phonological features of a . person’s speech are the most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue. For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by an essay, ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the voiceless consonant (/t/). Essay? This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. 1 AN OPINION COMPOSITION When you are writing an essay that asks you to discuss a topic or give your opinion on a . question, it is important to organize your thoughts and present your arguments clearly and to work out the structure of your essay before you start to write. 1. Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. Interaction? 3. Emile Naturalism? 4. 5. - an introduction (saying why it is bell hooks essay, important, what the situation is. ) - two or three paragraphs in support of the argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons). Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages. Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the following questions: . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/ opinion /18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Explain how the author describes the wind in three sentences?
Provide one quote from the essay . Emile Naturalism? 2. Copy down at least three descriptions that connect to at least three of the following senses: a. visual b. taste c. hearing d. touch e. smell 3. Write down the author’s main point. Analysis Essay? Actually copy his main point from the essay so I. Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . or from essay naturalism your research). Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on which whole books could be written. . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages.
Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to on human interaction, . the planning stages. What might you do to provide yourself with the naturalism, best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . Interaction? When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for emile essay naturalism, completing our assignment. We take the time to ap lang rhetorical analysis prompts, create an emile zola naturalism, effective outline and use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages.
watching. Mary Chastain writes for Breitbart.com and as a concerned parent, she mostly covers semi-controversial subjects of the news that focus on mental . health issues of ap lang rhetorical essay prompts, children. She inserts herself into her articles with compassion and essay naturalism, lets her opinions flow. Any mother or father would certainly feel the compassion in her words and ap lang analysis essay prompts, might trust her judgment just by knowing that she is a mother herself. Not knowing this information could skew your view of her articles.
If I did not know she was. Parent , Psychology , SpongeBob SquarePants 1056 Words | 3 Pages. of a highly successful career is the essay, amount of solitude, respect we receive from our peers. Essay Naturalism? We are respected because of our expertise and our knowledge. We stand out rhetorical prompts, . above the average person. We are noticed, loved and admired by zola, many. Our opinion is valued.
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