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bully essay titles You’ve decided to write a persuasive essay, and the topic you’ve chosen is cyber bullying—specifically, something should be done about it, but what ? The core, or the “guts,” of your essay should come from your own thoughts and views on the issue. To really make an impact, though, you should support your arguments with citations from credible outside sources. Good question. Essays Abortion! Credibility (aka “believability”) can come from one of several factors: The source is a person or organization that is an authority on the issue. For our purposes, this could be school administrators, educators, psychologists, and so forth.
The source is an established commentator. Emile Zola Naturalism! This could be a well-known opinion columnist, for example, or a newspaper byline. Essays! Such sources don’t have to be experts in a related field so much as having established authority and objectivity in the past. The source is someone with direct experience with the issue. This could easily be, for example, someone who has experienced cyber bullying first hand. (Check with your prof on this one, though. He might not accept an interview with your roommate as a credible research source. Your prof is more likely to prefer you summarize someone’s experiences as printed in an already published source.) The source is thesis 1996, a person or organization that will be directly involved in essays abortion pro life this issue, now or in the future—for example, law enforcement or legislators. Still not sure what I mean?
Let me give you some examples of what is not a credible source: Random Internet bloggers. People with obvious political biases or agendas (even if they’re major media figures). People with ulterior motives (thus lacking objectivity). Anyone who does not have a demonstrated authority to make credible statements. Note: It’s acceptable to use non-authoritative sources that are highly persuasive, but it’s sort of zola like starting a campfire with gasoline.
It might work, but it might blow up in pro life your face. Want a little more help determining whether sources are credible? Read How to cover letter for english Apply the CRAAP Test to Essay Sources. If you have a pretty good sense of essays abortion what makes a source credible but aren’t sure where to find credible outside sources, I’ve done a little bit of research for you. Here are 12 cyber bullying articles that you can use in your persuasive essay. Womanless Church! I’ve also included MLA 8 citations and APA citations for pro life, your convenience. (If you’re citing in APA format, remember to change the current date of access to the date you accessed the source, if relevant.) 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on the Definition of Cyber Bullying. “Cyberbullying” by Nick Youngston, The Blue Diamond Gallery (CC BY-SA 3.0) So what the heck is cyber bullying? Is it being mean to computers? The following sources are important for establishing your definition of this phenomenon. Cyber bullying article #1: Cyberbullying. This article not only church contains a definition of cyber bullying, but also includes a discussion of its effects, signs of cyber bullying, and tips for parents to help their children who may be suffering from cyber bullying. Additionally, the essays abortion pro life, article links to additional resources for parents, children, and teens.
The information in for english this article is published by The Nemours Center for essays, Children’s Health Media. Review! It’s part of pro life The Nemours Foundation, “a nonprofit organization created by philanthropist Alfred I. Letter For English! duPont in 1936 and essays abortion devoted to improving the health of children.” “Cyberbullying.” KidsHealth. The Nemours Foundation, 2014, kidshealth.org/en/parents/cyberbullying.html. Cyberbullying. (2014). Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/en/parents /cyberbullying.html. Cyber bullying article #2: What Is Cyberbullying? The U.S. Arthur! Department of Health and Human Services provides a concise definition of the term: “Cyberbullying is pro life, bullying that takes place using electronic technology.” It goes on to explain exactly what is meant by “electronic technology,” as well as gives a very good overview of the issue, including ideas for action. Much of the government’s concern is that bullying, in general, often involves illegal or criminal behavior. So definitions of dissertation such behavior are very important. “What Is Cyberbullying.” StopBullying.gov . Essays Abortion Pro Life! U.S.
Department of Health Human Services, www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/what-is-it/. Legend Essay! What is cyberbullying. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.stopbullying.gov /cyberbullying/what-is-it/ Cyber bullying article #3: What Is Cyberbullying? This article, published by the National Crime Prevention Council, defines cyber bullying, discusses the effects of cyber bullying, and offers resources for parents and teens. “What Is Cyberbullying?” National Crime Prevention Council , www.ncpc.org/topics/cyberbullying/what-is-cyberbullying. Essays Abortion Pro Life! What is cyberbullying? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncpc.org/topics /cyberbullying/what-is-cyberbullying. 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Why People Cyber Bully. The reason it’s so important to understand the causes of cyber bullying in writing your persuasive essay is that you will need to decide whether to emile zola recommend treating its causes or its effects. For instance, do you recommend counseling for potential bullies or for their eventual victims?
Do you recommend social sanctions or punishment? The following articles will help you answer these questions. Cyber bullying article #4: 8 Reasons Why Kids Cyberbully Others. The author, Sherri Gordon, gives a succinct list of reasons that cyber bullying takes place. Most noticeable is that the person who bullies others is trying to fit in. Ever since our caveman days, bullying has reinforced one’s sense of “belonging” by ganging up on “outsiders.” And “belonging” is something that teenagers, in particular, desperately want. Gordon also mentions a lack of empathy on the part of many cyber bullies. Empathy is something that, in general, develops relatively late in adolescents. Gordon, Sherri. “8 Factors That Motivate Cyberbullies to Lash Out at essays, Others.” Verywell , 30 Dec. 2016, www.verywell.com/reasons-why-kids-cyberbully-others-460553.
Gordon, S. Dissertation! (2016). 8 factors that motivate cyberbullies to essays lash out at others. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/reasons-why-kids-cyberbully-others-460553. Cyber bullying article #5: Why Do People Cyberbully? DeleteCyberbullying.org is a website that describes itself as “A Stop Online Harassment Project.” It’s devoted to finding both the origins of and the cure for learning review, cyber bullying. In addition to abortion mentioning some of the same causes of the problem as Gordon, above, the website mentions the anonymity of the Internet as a causal factor. Tied in with anonymity is the lack of learning any threat of retaliation, which encourages many cyber bullies—underlining the fact that bullying is a cowardly act. “Why Do People Cyberbully?” DeleteCyberbullying.org , www.deletecyberbullying.org/why-do-people-cyberbully/. Why do people cyberbully? (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.deletecyberbullying.org/why-do-people-cyberbully/ Cyber bullying article #6: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other? This brief article examines the reasons kids cyber bully, such as anger, revenge, boredom, or frustration. The STOP Cyberbullying website also links to a variety of additional articles that provide advice for dealing with bullies and advice on how to take a stand against cyber bullying. “STOP Cyberbullying: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other?” StopCyberbulling.org , WiredSafety.org, www.stopcyberbullying.org /why_do_kids_cyberbully_each_other.html. STOP cyberbullying: Why do kids cyberbully each other? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/why_do_kids_cyberbully_each_other.html. 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Treatments for Cyber Bullying. All of the following articles point out that, when recommending treatment for cyber bullying, it’s once again a matter of definition: what kind of treatment, and for whom?
Should the treatment focus on prevention or on dealing with the abortion, damage? In your persuasive essay, you’ll need to essay decide on pro life your stance on these issues. Cyber bullying article #7: Cyberbullying “Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Kids More Than Traditional Bullying” David McNamee, a frequent contributor to emile naturalism Medical News Today , calls attention to one frightening aspect of cyber bullying: its victims are highly prone to having suicidal thoughts. He quotes a study done in the Netherlands. Essays! The authors of the study speculated that the increased power of cyber bullying to make its victims suicidal was due to the widespread nature of the Internet. Unlike traditional face-to-face bullying, cyber bullying material can be stored on a variety of legend arthur essay online media, causing the victim to essays abortion pro life relive the womanless black church essay, experience again and again. Pro Life! This suggests that any treatment of cyber bullying should include monitoring the significant risk it creates of suicidal thoughts and actions in black church essay victims. McNamee, Dave. “Cyberbullying ‘Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Kids More than Traditional Bullying.’” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 11 Mar. 2014, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/273788.php. Abortion! McNamee, D. Review! (2014, March 11).
Cyberbullying “causes suicidal thoughts in kids more than traditional bullying.” Medical News Today . Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/273788.php. Cyber bullying article #8: Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis. Bullying has been in pro life existence for many years, and this journal article examines the history of the problem and how bullying expanded to legend of king essay include cyber bullying as technologies changed. It also includes suggestions for preventing cyber bullying. Donegan, Richard. “Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and abortion pro life Analysis.” The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications , vol.
3, no. 1, pp. 33–42. Review! www.elon.edu/docs/e-web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/ 04doneganejspring12.pdf. Donegan, R. (2012). Abortion Pro Life! Bullying and cyberbullying: History, statistics, law, prevention and analysis.
The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 3 (1), 33-42. Retrieved from https://www.elon.edu/docs/ e-web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/ 04doneganejspring12.pdf. Cyber bullying article #9: Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to Teen Depression. Arthur! This article is published by Scientific American , “the longest continuously published magazine in the U.S.” It highlights the fact that both those who cyberbully and essays abortion pro life those who are cyberbullied often experience higher rates of depression. The article reviews several studies and stresses that these studies alone cannot prove that cyber bullying causes depression. It does, however, suggest that teens who suffer from depression are more likely to become victims of bullying than those who are not depressed. Pappas, Stephanie. “Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to Teen Depression.” Scientific American , 23 June 2015, www.scientificamerican.com/article /social-media-cyber-bullying-linked-to-teen-depression/. Dissertation Learning Review! Pappas, S. (2015, June 23). Essays! Social media cyber bullying linked to teen depression. Scientific American.
Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/social-media-cyber-bullying-linked-to-teen-depression/ 3 Cyber Bullying Articles on the Prevention of Cyber Bullying. Can we stop cyber bullying from happening in the first place? The following articles are helpful for defining a call to naturalism action. What should readers do about cyber bullying? How can they prevent it from happening? Cyber bullying article #10: Cyberbullying: Intervention and abortion pro life Prevention Strategies.
The authors of this article, Ted Feinberg and Nicole Robey, recommend a number of strategies to reduce the emile zola essay, incidence and, particularly, the recurrence of essays abortion pro life cyber bullying. For victims and parents of victims, the legend arthur essay, authors recommend recording the offending material, enlisting the pro life, help of authorities, contacting the attacker directly, and importantly, having an open environment in the home regarding computer and Internet use. For educators, the authors recommend that a threat assessment be done and that anti-cyber bullying education be made a regular part of the curriculum. Feinberg, Ted, and Nicole Robey. “Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies” (Handout no. Cover Letter! S4H15-1). Helping Children at Home and School III – Handouts for Families and Educators, edited by Andrea Canter et al., National Association of School Psychologists. Semantic Scholar, Allen Institute for abortion pro life, Artificial Intelligence, pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d27d /47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf.
Feinbert, T., Robey, N. On Team! (n.d.). Cyberbullying: Intervention and prevention strategies (Handout no. S4H15-1). In A. Canter, L. Paige, S. Shaw, Helping Children at Home and essays abortion School III – Handouts for womanless black church essay, Families and essays abortion Educators. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org /d27d/47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf.
Cyber bullying article #11: Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and dissertation review Resources. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is a famous and essays pro life long-established organization that originally combated anti-Semitism. It has since expanded its reach to include opposing all forms of discrimination and defamation. While many of these resources are aimed at preventing “traditional” bullying, the advice can be applied to dissertation learning cyber bullying as well. Below are citations for both the list of sources on essays pro life the URL as a whole and an example with one of the articles available there. MLA Citation (URL with list of resources) “Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and Resources.” Anti-Defamation League , www.adl.org/education-outreach/bullying-cyberbullying/c/strategies-and-resources.html. APA Citation (URL with list of resources) Bullying and dissertation learning review cyberbullying prevention strategies and resources. (n.d.).
Retrieved from pro life http://www.adl.org/education-outreach/bullying-cyberbullying/c/strategies-and-resources.html. MLA Citation (example PDF resource) “Bullying Prevention and Intervention Tips for Schools.” Anti-Defamation League , www.adl.org/sites/default/files/documents/assets/pdf/education-outreach/Bullying-Prevention-and-Intervention-Tips-for-Schools-Institutions.pdf. APA Citation (example PDF resource) Bullying prevention and intervention tips for schools. Thesis 1996! (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.adl.org/sites/default/files/documents/assets/pdf/education-outreach/Bullying-Prevention-and-Intervention-Tips-for-Schools-Institutions.pdf.
Cyber bullying article #12: Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and Prevention. Published in essays the Universal Journal of Education Research , this article discusses cyber bullying and ways to combat it. It also includes an overview of prevention and intervention programs and the role schools play in preventing cyber bullying. Notar, Charles E., et al. “Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and Prevention.” Universal Journal of Educational Research , vol. 1, no. 3, 2013, pp. 133–45. ERIC Institute of Education Sciences , doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301. Notar, C. E., Padgett, S., Roden, J. (2013). Cyberbullying: Resources for intervention and womanless black church prevention. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 1 (3), 133-145. doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301.
I’ve barely scratched the surface here. My goal was to give you a starting point for your own research. There are about 43 gazillion articles and essays abortion pro life websites out there on this topic. So I strongly suggest you make your search terms as specific as possible. Thesis 1996! Once you dive in, remember that persuasive essays recommend action(s), and that to do so, you need to essays take into account, as well as point out, three things: What is the emile zola, cost—in terms of essays money, effort, and time? Is it worth the effort?
Will it solve or at letter for english, least mitigate the problem, to an extent that justifies those costs? What about essays abortion pro life opportunity cost—the fact that, whatever we do, we could have been doing something else potentially useful instead (should resources spent combating cyber bullying be used elsewhere)? If you need more help getting your arms around writing your persuasive essay, I recommend reading How to Create a Persuasive Essay Outline and checking out Persuasive Essay Writing Made Simple (Infographic). Looking at these cyber bullying articles but need to write something other than a persuasive essay? Here are a few examples of other types of papers about the topic: Looking for even more help? Why not send your paper to dissertation a Kibin editor for a little revision expertise? Psst.
98% of abortion Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd.
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Metacognition Student Achievement Essay. Metacognition has generally been described as thinking about one’s own thoughts. The realization that a human being cannot exist in isolation of his inner self, that he is constantly probing that dam of essays abortion his very essence to womanless black evaluate situations and resolve the never-ending puzzles that daily confront him. Essays Pro Life? Kornell (2009), has described metacognition as self-reflection and conscious awareness. An even more elaborate definition is that given by Serendip (2009). He defines it as “a reflective practice that helps one discern general patterns in cover letter for english, one’s own views and abilities”. Whichever definition one feels comfortable with, it cannot be said to be superior to the other, because metacognition deals with the intangible and cannot be weighed on a scale. It has, however, been the essays pro life subject of widespread research all over the world. Psychologists are now asking themselves, what causes that tip of the tongue experience, when you are sure you know someone’s name but cannot recall it? Or what is at play when one conveys a feeling of uncertainty? Why is it that humans are able to have certain cognitive abilities that animals apparently do not have?
For example, if asked what year America gained independence, one may readily recall with certainty, or one may say with complete uncertainty that he does not know. The answer may also lie in between, showing a certain degree of uncertainty by legend of king replying, for example, I think it was 1776. Whatever answer one gives, it demonstrates an ability to essays question one’s memory and experience. Essay? According to studies that have been done, this ability can be improved. Thus, the science of metacognition is abortion pro life, now rampant, with studies being carried out on the cognitive abilities of monkeys, children, students, and ways in which they can be improved.
Metacognition 2 One study which was carried out to test the cognitive abilities of rhesus monkeys, was that conducted by dissertation learning Kornell, Son Terrace (2007). In this trial, the monkeys were initially trained to select a given picture from a sample of six pictures by touching the image on a touch-screen monitor. Pro Life? After this training period, they were shown six sample pictures which were then simultaneously removed and replaced with nine, one of the previous six being among them. As soon as they selected the sample they thought was among the previous six, they were required to bet on their choice by depressing an icon on the screen for certainty, with a reward of redeemable food tokens, or loss of tokens, if wrong. A further icon for a low risk bet was also there. After carrying out this experiment for a suitable period of time, they concluded that the monkeys would invariably only bet when they were sure that they knew the correct answer. The researchers were therefore of the opinion that the monkeys were guided by a cognitive ability. They also tested two monkeys on metacognitive control. This is the ability to use metacognitive ability to influence behavior. Legend Arthur? An example would be requesting for essays, a hint when one is unsure of an thesis 1996, answer, a common trait with humans.
In this trial, two monkeys were presented with a few sample pictures to place in pro life, a certain order. They were also availed of onscreen visual hints if they needed. The penalty for on team, using the hints was a less appetizing banana flavored pellet, instead of the more attractive MM candy. As the test progressed, it became apparent that the monkeys were using the hints less and less, and would only resort to essays abortion them when they were sure that they did not know the right answer. This ability to have control over one’s metacognitive ability had been tested on essay naturalism humans for many years, and it was only now that it was becoming clear that it was also present in animals. However, how prevalent this is among them, cannot be clear and it cannot be generalized from this study that only involved rhesus monkeys. Metacognition 3 Smith Washbum (2005) have taken animal research a notch higher and carried out abortion trials that probe the memory, referred to as monitoring the memory. In the test, animals which were given various tasks to on team do based on what they had done before, declined to engage in essays, the more difficult tasks, a result that was the same as similar tests carried out on humans.
The animals were selective and thesis 1996 seemed to essays have the same analogous capacity as human. There was no doubt that they were using their metacognitive abilities to seek in their memories, and when they remembered that the task was arduous, they declined to take the test. Kornell Terrace (2007) also carried out some trials seeking to find out if monkeys benefited from learning. They did this with two rhesus monkeys which were given two problem sets to solve. Dissertation Learning? In one difficult set, they were given hints to assist them after a suitable training period. In the other set, they were given no hints. The number of pro life hints they used to solve the problem set steadily declined over time, the performance, however, did not change, it stayed the same. The monkeys were solving the problem with skills they had acquired from the hints and were using them less and less because they had “learned”. This is fascinating and opens up very interesting questions about the training of animals. There are other areas of animal metacognitive behavior which have been studied. Hampton, R (2009), carried out studies on rhesus monkeys to determine if they made decisions when they had information, or sought information when ignorant and immediately made a decision.
The results were quite revealing. They carried out two sets of tests. In one test, the monkeys witnessed food being inserted into some opaque test tubes. These tests were referred to as the seen trials. In the other test, the dissertation food was inserted into test tubes without their knowledge. Metacognition 4 The monkeys were then required to identify the tubes which had food in them. In trial after trial, they would first look down the pro life tubes to cover letter for english ascertain if the food was there and if it was, they selected the tube.
What was evident from these tests is that the monkeys sought information first, by peering down the tubes, when ignorant, and only immediately selected the correct tubes without investigating, when they knew the food was there. That means they knew when they knew and only sought information when they knew that they did not know. This is pro life, a characteristic which is prevalent among human children, orangutans and rhesus monkeys. It is, however, not clear with capuchin monkeys when they were exposed to a similar trial about a decade before. Thesis 1996? There is room for more research on animals. According to Smith Washbum, a lot needs to be investigated regarding the gifts different animals have. For example, monkeys and dolphins seem to exhibit more cognitive abilities than pigeons, whose reactions appear to be more stimulus based.
Further research in this area can yield very important information which may stimulate a whole spectrum of research into cognitive abilities of pro life different animal specie. Additionally, there is a lot of on team room into studies on the ability or lack of ability of animals to make quantitative judgements, for example, their mood. Metacognitive abilities is also a subject of importance in developing learning capabilities for children. Loh, A (2009), has made suggestions on methods to use to improve metacognition learning for children as young as two year olds. Since parents spend the most amount time with children of this age, they are best placed to practice the techniques recommended by Loh.
He says that children should be encouraged to think about essays abortion pro life, their thinking process in order to zola essay develop their intellect and intelligence. Essays Abortion? Children should be engaged, soon after an activity, to gauge their Metacognition 5 thinking process and the techniques they used for a task. Immediately after this activity, they should be asked certain questions, for example : 1. They should be asked about the process they used to achieve the result. This way, they will recall the steps and thesis 1996 learn the process. 2. What strategies did they use? This will engage them actively in essays pro life, the thinking process by beginning to adopt strategic thinking of alternative techniques they can use to achieve better results. 3. Black Essay? What do they think about the end result? Is it good or bad?
This will help them to evaluate their work. 4. Offer them puzzling tasks that have more than one solution. This exposes them to cognitive conflicts 5. Engage them in debates and discussions with other children 6. Allow them to abortion practice reciprocal teaching where they form groups and emile zola naturalism one child teaches members of abortion his group. 7. Once they engage on a task, allow them to continue undisturbed. Help them with clues if they get stuck. Dissertation Review? Further, they can be assisted with questions that will incline them to probe their mind even more, for example, what they learned from the task and what they found difficult. Additionally, they can be probed to find out if they have a next goal and what will help them to achieve it. Metacognition 6 There has been more research in the field of metacognitive abilities of children. Young children’s understanding of mental life, or “theory of mind”, is an area that is currently being explored by various scientists. According to science daily (2008), a new study had made a link between theory of mind as assessed in kindergarten children and their metacognitive abilities in essays abortion pro life, elementary school.
Early theory of mind competencies positively influenced metacognitive abilities acquired later. 174 children between the ages of three and four were used as study subjects to investigate this relationship. Wolfgang Schneider, P. Review? H. D. , of the University of abortion pro life Wurzburg, who carried out the trial, said that knowledge from this research can be used to develop training programs for young children. For all the progress that has been done on essay naturalism metacognition in animals and children, none can rival that of learners. The Elementary Teachers Federation of essays Ontario (2009), says that students with metacognitive needs have difficulties in setting priorities and planning their tasks. Additionally: 1. They are poor at strategizing in order to accomplish a task methodically 2. They procrastinate and are unable to start their work. Cover? 3. They are inattentive and make careless mistakes. Abortion? 4. They are not able to identify their faults or know how to seek help. With these type of students they recommend the following teaching strategies : 1. Teachers should tutor them on how to plan and show them the scoring rubric for the assignment. 2. They should be taught on estimation of time needed to complete a task.
3. They should be assisted with think-aloud strategies. Metacognition 7 4. They should be cajoled to get engaged actively in their work by asking them how they are doing the work and how they will remember to solve the problem. 5. Teachers should be specific in on team communication, their assignments to students by essays providing scoring rubrics for each question and how they have been calculated. However, Pierce (2004), dealt even deeper in metacognition for students. He was of the opinion that study strategies were generalized and teachers did not teach them in class. They assumed that students had already learned them.
When they taught a strategy, students used the same strategy taught for essay, all subjects. According to him, students needed to acquire three types of knowledge in order to essays abortion improve their metacognitive abilities. These are : 1. Declarative knowledge which is having at communication, their grasp factual information, for example, speed is distance divided by time taken. Essays? 2. Procedural knowledge which is knowing how to do something. Using the previous example of speed, they should know the for english formula for speed and essays the steps required in its calculation. 3. Conditional knowledge – This is knowing when to use a certain procedure and why one strategy is better than another. In applying the three types of knowledge for letter, study strategies for example, students need declarative knowledge to know that a high school history textbook is different from an article analyzing the same textbook. They need procedural knowledge to take notes from such a textbook and conditional knowledge to essays pro life know when such notes should be taken. According to Pierce, study techniques improve learning but are hardly ever taught. Additionally, many students do not internalize success as caused by thesis 1996 ability and effort. Metacognition 8 Lippman, Danielsson Linder (2005), differed slightly with some researchers of metacognition.
They claimed that most studies taught metacognitive skills and essays abortion pro life then measured the thesis 1996 effects of training. Instead, they should quantify the essays pro life use of metacognition. In a study that they carried out at an American university, their aim was to essay find out how much metacognition is abortion pro life, used in a laboratory and how the setup encourages the emile zola naturalism use of metacognition. Three groups of students were used and their proceedings videotaped and their verbal comments recorded. In one group, students were given a set of essays abortion instructions to follow. The same was done for the second group and in addition, they were expected to explain their reason. The third group was given a question to answer and expected to explain, in a presentation, the method they had used to get results. In analyzing the results, Lippman et al (2005) saw no difference in zola essay, the amount of metacognition in the different groups.
However, the most important finding was that there was a difference in how metacognition made students change their behavior in tackling the lab assignments. For example, in the third group, the verbal exchanges revealed that the use of metacognition made the students more creative. This was a different approach as was the one used by Mevarech Kramarski (2003). Essays Abortion Pro Life? In this study, 100 eighth graders, studying algebra in letter, four classrooms, were divided into two groups. One group was exposed to cooperative learning and also given metacognitive training. Abortion? The other group was given cooperative learning but without metacognitive training. At issue was mathematical modeling and problem solving skills. After tasks to perform were given, the results showed that the group which had been given metacognitive training did outperformed the other that only womanless, had a cooperative setting. There was significant difference with the two groups with regard to planning, processing and abortion reflection. They concluded that the cooperative Metacognition 9 setting is not enough to enhance modeling skills. Metacognitive skills are important in how to approach a problem, how to control and monitor the solution and how to reflect on black essay the final answer.
As a result of such studies, Mevarech Kramarski (2003) designed the learning tool called IMPROVE, whose letters stand for : Introducing the new material Metacognitive questioning Practicing Reviewing Obtaining mastery on higher and pro life lower cognitive processes Verification Enrichment and remedial The important thing in IMPROVE is the approach in problem solving. Students are able to approach a scenario with a systematic method which first and thesis 1996 foremost addresses the question of what is the issue at hand. They then investigate to essays pro life find out how different the problem is from others and what the best strategies are to thesis 1996 solve it. As can be seen from all the studies mentioned, metacognition is an area of development that has a lot of room for growth. Animals which have been shown to have metacognitive abilities can be researched further in order to essays abortion pro life discover if this is something widespread within the black church animal kingdom, and if not, then what actually determines metacognition of a species. With children too, the essays abortion pro life theory of the mind is essay naturalism, interesting and further studies should be carried out to abortion pro life determine if there are other areas of their lives that can benefit from improved research on emile naturalism Metacognition 10 metacognition. For example, are high levels of metacognition genetic? Does diet affect levels of metacognition? What role does disease play in metacognition? It would also be interesting to see new research in the study techniques of students.
More than anyone else, their place in society is critical because they take over reins in business, government and the civil society within only a few years after leaving college. Their overall performance in school is abortion pro life, therefore a top priority. Of serious concern should be when study techniques should begin to be taught and how they would be standardized. Additionally, quantifying the use of metacognition as advocated for by Lippman (2005), needs to cover for english generate more study. Abortion? If his research is anything to go by, then the approach to essay metacognition training must also address, not just the essays amount of metacognition ability gained, but also how it is channeled to productive use. This is an area that can prove very challenging and rewarding because teaching metacognition techniques is one thing, but being able to teach the type of techniques that can produce quantifiable measures cannot be easy. However, it is possible that the same metacognition graduates will discover new methods and strategies to impart more abilities in metacognition. Arthur? Metacognition 11 References Elementary Teachers’ Federation of Ontario (2009). Essays Pro Life? Metacognitive Skills.
Retrieved on essays communication July 29, 2009 from http://www. etfo. ca/Multimedia/Webcasts/SpecialEducation/Pages/Metacognitive%20Skills. aspx Hampton, R (2009). Essays? Multiple demonstrations of naturalism metacognition in nonhumans: Converging evidence or multiple mechanisms? Retrieved on July 29, 2009 from http://psyc. Essays Abortion? queensu. ca/ccbr/Vol4/Hampton.pdf. Kornell, Nate (2009, February). Metacognition in Humans and Animals. Retrieved on July 29, 2009 from http://www3. interscience. wiley. com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122212734/HTMLSTART Lippmann, K. , Danielsson, A. Linder, C. (2005, August). Metacognition in the student Laboratory : Is increased metacognition necessarily better? Retrieved July 29, 2009 from http://www. Womanless Black Church? anst. Essays Pro Life? uu. Learning? se/rekun676/meta. pdf Loh, A (2009, July). Using Metacognition Learning to Make Children Smarter. Retrieved on July 29, 209 from http://www. brainy-child. com/articles/metacognition-learning.shtml Mevarech Z. Kramarski, B. ( 2003). Mathematical Modeling and Meta-cognitive Instruction.
Retrieved on July 29, 2009 from abortion pro life http://www. icme-organisers. Zola Essay? dk/tsg18/S32MevarechKramarski. pdf Metacognition 12 Mevarech, Z. Kramarski, B. (2003). Metacognitive Questioning and the use of Worked Examples. Retrieved July 29, 2009 from essays pro life http://www. Review? memory-key. com/StudySkills/IMPROVE. htm Peirce, W (2004, November). METACOGNITION: Study Strategies, Monitoring, and Motivation. Retrieved on July 29, 2009, from http://academic. Essays Abortion? pgcc. Womanless? edu/ wpeirce/MCCCTR/metacognition.htm ScienceDaily (2008, August). Young Children’s ‘Theory Of Mind’ Linked To Subsequent Metacognitive Development In Adolescence. Retrieved on essays abortion pro life July 29, 2009 from http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2008/08/080814154429. htm Serendip (2009). Metacognition.
Retrieved July 29, 2009 from http://serendip. brynmawr. edu/exchange/wfrankli/ii09/metacognition Smith, D Washbum, D. (2005, February). Uncertainty Monitoring and Metacognition by Animals. Retrieved July 29, 2009 from essays http://www3. interscience. wiley. com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118706297/HTMLSTART. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 17 September 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Metacognition Student Achievement. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.
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A MiddleWeb Classic: Exploring Rubrics! A little history: This article first appeared on essays abortion the MiddleWeb site (with permission from the author) in 1997, in the early years of rubrics in essay the classroom. In 1999, Heidi Andrade provided several additional rubrics which were added to this post. More than 15 years after this material first appeared at MiddleWeb and long after its original link was functional, it continues to abortion, be one of the most sought-after MiddleWeb resources. Womanless Essay? For that reason, we#8217;ve reposted it here and redirected the original link to this new page. At the end of this post, we#8217;ve also included links to several rubrics associated with inference, independent writing, and literary conversation. Please note that the portion of this post which was published at Educational Leadership can also be accessed at the ASCD site (4/20/14). Also see her Educational Leadership article (February 2000), #8220;Using Rubrics to Promote Thinking Learning#8221; for suggestions on essays abortion designing instructional rubrics. Today, Dr. Andrade is an education associate dean at the University of Albany (SUNY) and emile continues to be a leader in the field of formative/classsroom assessment and rubrics. In a more recent Educational Leadership article (January 2008), she emphasizes that #8220;Rubrics can be a powerful self-assessment tool—if teachers disconnect them from grades and give students time and support to revise their work.#8221; For more contemporary resources, including Common Core perspectives, be sure to visit our MiddleWeb resource roundup: All About Rubrics. originally published in pro life Educational Leadership, 54(4)
© Heidi Goodrich 1996. Every time I introduce rubrics to a group of teachers the reaction is the womanless church essay, same instant appeal (#8220;Yes, this is what I need!#8221;) followed closely by panic (#8220;Good grief, how can I be expected to develop a rubric for everything?#8221;). When you learn what rubrics doand whyyou can create and use them to support and essays pro life assess student learning without losing your sanity. A rubric is a scoring tool that lists the criteria for of king arthur essay a piece of work, or #8220;what counts#8221; (for example, purpose, organization, details, voice, and abortion pro life mechanics are often what count in a piece of thesis 1996, writing); it also articulates gradations of quality for each criterion, from excellent to poor. Abortion Pro Life? The term defies a dictionary definition, but it seems to have established itself, so I continue to use it. The example in Figure 1 (adapted from Perkins et al 1994) lists the criteria and gradations of quality for verbal, written, or graphic reports on essays student inventions for instance, inventions designed to ease the Westward journey for 19th century pioneers for instance, or to solve a local environmental problem, or to pro life, represent an imaginary culture and its inhabitants, or anything else students might invent.
This rubric lists the criteria in the column on the left: The report must explain (1) the purposes of the invention, (2) the features or parts of the invention and how they help it serve its purposes, (3) the pros and cons of the design, and (4) how the design connects to other things past, present, and future. The rubric could easily include criteria related to presentation style and effectiveness, the mechanics of written pieces, and communication the quality of the invention itself. The four columns to the right of the criteria describe varying degrees of quality, from excellent to poor. As concisely as possible, these columns explain what makes a good piece of essays, work good and a bad one bad. Rubrics appeal to teachers and students for many reasons. First, they are powerful tools for both teaching and assessment. Rubrics can improve student performance, as well as monitor it, by dissertation learning, making teachers#8217; expectations clear and by showing students how to meet these expectations.
The result is often marked improvements in the quality of student work and in learning. Thus, the most common argument for essays pro life using rubrics is they help define #8220;quality.#8221; One student actually didn#8217;t like rubrics for womanless black essay this very reason: #8220;If you get something wrong,#8221; she said, #8220;your teacher can prove you knew what you were supposed to do!#8221; (Marcus 1995). Abortion Pro Life? A second reason that rubrics are useful is that they help students become more thoughtful judges of the thesis 1996, quality of their own and others#8217; work. When rubrics are used to guide self- and abortion peer-assessment, students become increasingly able to spot and solve problems in their own and one another#8217;s work. Cover? Repeated practice with peer-assessment, and especially self-assessment, increases students#8217; sense of responsibility for their own work and pro life cuts down on dissertation learning review the number of #8220;Am I done yet?#8221; questions. Third, rubrics reduce the abortion, amount of time teachers spend evaluating student work. Teachers tend to find that by the time a piece has been self- and peer-assessed according to womanless black church essay, a rubric, they have little left to say about abortion pro life it. Legend Essay? When they do have something to say, they can often simply circle an item in the rubric, rather than struggling to abortion pro life, explain the flaw or strength they have noticed and figuring out what to suggest in terms of improvements. Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and thesis 1996 areas in need of improvement.
Fourth, teachers appreciate rubrics because their #8220;accordion#8221; nature allows them to accommodate heterogeneous classes. The examples here have three or four gradations of quality, but there is no reason they can#8217;t be #8220;stretched#8221; to reflect the work of abortion pro life, both gifted students and those with learning disabilities. Finally, rubrics are easy to dissertation, use and to pro life, explain. Christine Hall, a fourth grade teacher, reflected on how both students and parents responded to her use of rubrics: Students were able to articulate what they had learned, and by the end of the year could be accurate with their evaluations. Parents were very excited about the use of rubrics.
During parent conferences I used sample rubrics to explain to parents their purpose, and how they were used in class. The reaction of parents was very encouraging. They knew exactly what their child needed to do to be successful. How Do You Create Rubrics? Rubrics are becoming increasingly popular with educators moving toward more authentic, performance- based assessments. Recent publications contain some rubrics (Brewer 1996; Marzano et al 1993). Chances are, however, that you will have to develop a few of your own rubrics to reflect your own curriculum and teaching style.
To boost the learning leverage of emile zola naturalism, rubrics, the rubric design process should engage students in the following steps: 1. Look at models: Show students examples of good and not-so-good work. Identify the characteristics that make the good ones good and the bad ones bad. Essays Abortion? 2. Womanless Church? List criteria: Use the discussion of models to begin a list of what counts in quality work. 3. Articulate gradations of quality: Describe the best and essays abortion pro life worst levels of essays, quality, then fill in the middle levels based on your knowledge of common problems and the discussion of not-so-good work. Essays Abortion? 4. Practice on models: Have students use the dissertation, rubrics to essays pro life, evaluate the legend, models you gave them in Step 1. 5. Use self- and peer-assessment: Give students their assignment. As they work, stop them occasionally for self- and peer-assessment.
6. Revise: Always give students time to revise their work based on the feedback they get in Step 5. 7. Use teacher assessment: Use the same rubric students used to assess their work yourself. Step 1 may be necessary only when you are asking students to engage in a task with which they are unfamiliar. Steps 3 and 4 are useful but time-consuming; you can do these on essays abortion your own, especially when you#8217;ve been using rubrics for a while. Letter? A class experienced in rubric-based assessment can streamline the process so that it begins with listing criteria, after which the teacher writes out the gradations of quality, checks them with the students, makes revisions, then uses the rubric for self-, peer-, and teacher assessment. Ann Tanona, a second grade teacher, went through the seven-step process with her students.
The result was a rubric for assessing videotaped Reading Rainbow -style #8220;book talks#8221; (fig. 2). Tips on designing rubrics. Ann#8217;s rubric is powerful because it articulates the characteristics of abortion, a good #8220;book talk#8221; in students#8217; own words. It also demonstrates some of the difficulties of cover letter for english, designing a good rubric. Perhaps the essays abortion, most common challenge is avoiding unclear language, such as #8220;creative beginning.#8221; If a rubric is to teach as well as evaluate, terms like these must be defined for students. Admittedly, creative is cover letter for english, a difficult word to define. Ann handled this problem by having a discussion of what the abortion, term #8220;creative beginning#8221; meant in the book talks.
Patricia Crosby and of king Pamela Heinz, both seventh grade teachers, solved the same problem in a rubric for oral presentations by actually listing ways in which students could meet the criterion (fig. 3). This approach provides valuable information to students on how to begin a talk and abortion avoids the need to define elusive terms like creative. A second challenge in rubric design is avoiding unnecessarily negative language. The excerpt from the essays on team, rubric in Figure 3 avoids words like boring by describing what was done during a so-so beginning to a talk and implicitly comparing it with the highest level of essays abortion, quality. Thus, students know exactly what they did wrong and how they can do better next time, not just that the opening to their talk was boring. Articulating gradations of quality is often a challenge. It helps if you spend a lot of time thinking about criteria and how best to chunk them before going on to define the levels of quality. You might also try a clever technique I have borrowed from a fifth grade teacher in Gloucester, Massachusetts. She describes gradations of quality as: #8220;Yes,#8221; #8220;Yes but,#8221; #8220;No but,#8221; and #8220;No.#8221; For example, Figure 4 shows part of emile zola naturalism, a rubric for evaluating a scrapbook that documents a story. This approach tends to work well, as long as you aren#8217;t too rigid about it.
Rigidity can have amusing results: One student wrote out the pro life, lowest level of quality for the criterion, #8220;Is it anachronism free?#8221; this way: #8220;No, I did not remember to not use anachronism#8221;! What to Do Once You#8217;ve Created Rubrics. Creating rubrics is the hard part using them is relatively easy. Once you#8217;ve created a rubric, give copies to students and ask them to thesis 1996, assess their own progress on a task or project. Their assessments should not count toward a grade. The point is for the rubric to help students learn more and produce better final products, so including self-assessments in abortion grades is unnecessary and can compromise students#8217; honesty. Always give students time to essays on team, revise their work after assessing themselves, then have them assess one another#8217;s work. Peer-assessment takes some getting used to.
Emphasize the fact that peer-assessment, like self-assessment, is intended to essays abortion pro life, help everyone do better work. You may also need to hold students accountable for their assessments of cover letter, a classmate#8217;s work by having them sign off on the rubric they use. You can then see how fair and accurate their feedback is, and you can ask for evidence that supports their opinions when their assess-ments don#8217;t match yours. Again, giving time for abortion pro life revision after peer-assessment is crucial. Parents can use rubrics to thesis 1996, help their children with their homework. Finally, when you assess student work, use the same rubric that was used for self- and peer-assessment.
When you hand the marked rubric back with the students#8217; work, they#8217;ll know what they did well and what they need to work on in the abortion pro life, future. Grading (if you must) is also relatively easy with rubrics. A piece of work that reflects the highest level of quality for each criterion obviously deserves an zola essay naturalism, A, one that consistently falls in abortion the lowest level is a D or F, and so on. Letter? Because one piece of work rarely falls in only one level of quality, many teachers average out the levels of essays abortion pro life, quality, either formally or informally. Rubrics can also be included in portfolios. Thesis 1996? However you use them, the abortion pro life, idea is to support and to evaluate student learning. Students, as well as teachers, should respond to the use of rubrics by thinking, #8220;Yes, this is what I need!#8221;
• Brewer, R. (1996). Exemplars: A Teacher#8217;s Solution . Underhill, VT: Exemplars. • Marcus, J. (1995). #8220;Data on black church the Impact of Alternative Assessment on Students.#8221; Unpublished manuscript. The Education Cooperative, Wellesley, MA. • Marzano, R., D. Pickering, and essays abortion pro life J. Essay? McTighe (1993). Assessing Student Outcomes: Performance Assessment Using the Dimensions of Learning Model. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. • Perkins, D., H. Goodrich, S. Tishman, and J. Mirman Owen (1994). Thinking Connections: Learning to Think and Thinking to Learn . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. from Heidi Goodrich Andrade. (See download links at end of large rubrics) Persuasive Essay Prompt and Rubric The State of California has a law that all students must be educated until they are 16 years old.
This law passed after some debate. Some people thought it was a good law, some didn#8217;t. Put yourself in these lawmakers#8217; shoes and argue either for or against abortion, this law. In a 5-paragraph essay, be sure to: #8212; form an opinion on this issue and support it with strong arguments and relevant information. Womanless Black? #8212; use your knowledge of essays abortion pro life, democracy to explain how having or not having such a law would affect a democratic society like ours. A more generic version of the rubric above appears in this EL article. Autobiographical Event Essay Prompt and Rubric Write about an event in letter your life that taught you something or made you grow as a person. Tell the story in a way that will let your readers enter into it and understand what it meant to essays abortion pro life, you. RUBRIC FOR AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL EVENT ESSAY.
More Classic Resources about Rubrics. from Earlier Versions of the MiddleWeb Site. Here are some other popular materials about rubrics salvaged from our archives. These rubrics resources are not connected to emile zola, the work of Heidi Andrade. Most were contributed by teachers. Essays Abortion? MiddleWeb is all about the middle grades, with great 4-8 resources, book reviews, and guest posts by educators who support the success of review, young adolescents.
And be sure to subscribe to MiddleWeb SmartBrief for the latest middle grades news commentary from around the USA.
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Essay Abortion: Pro-Life vs Pro-Choice - 581 Words | Bartleby
essay murder Murder Culture: Adventures in 1940s Suspense. She had spoken aloud. She hadn’t meant to; she hadn’t wanted those words to come up from her throat to her lips. Essays Abortion. She hadn’t meant to essays on team communication think them, much less speak them. She didn’t want Gratia to abortion have heard them. But across the room the girl lifted her eyes from thesis 1996 her book. “What did you say?” she queried.
In 1947, novelist Mitchell Wilson proclaimed: “Within the past ten years, we have been witnessing a new form of popular fictionthe story of essays abortion pro life, suspense.” 1 We are so used to essay this genremany of our bestsellers are suspense thrillersthat it’s a little surprising to recall that once it was quite a new thing. Essays. On reflection, though, we might wonder: Was it really so new? Don’t all novels and short stories, indeed all narratives in popular media, depend on suspense? We want to know what happens next; we call a book that drives us forward a page-turner. Emile Zola. But writers of the abortion period began to distinguish this general sort of suspense from something more specific. Suspense, Wilson claims, depends on the reader’s identifying with a protagonist who is in acute jeopardy. That protagonist reacts to the situation not with superhuman calm or jauntiness but with fear. By describing the situation and the character’s response to it, the writer can communicate fear directly to the reader, who, says Wilson, “is aware of his own cowardice.” The universality of fear as an emotion allows the reader to on team communication understand how the hero reacts, either by essays abortion pro life, impulsively lashing out or by fleeing the legend arthur situation. What can best justify fear? The prospect of death.
The threat of murder, Wilson claims, becomes central to this sort of suspense. It proves to the reader that there is no limit to the impending violence. 2 This quality is abortion pro life very different from the diffuse suspense we get from a romance or a detective story, in which the characters are usually not in mortal peril. Sooner or later, though, the protagonist will have to come to overcome fear. The framework of the suspense story is the cover for english continual struggle of the frightened protagonist to fight back and save himself in essays abortion, spite of his pervading anxiety, and in legend arthur essay, this respect he is essays abortion truly heroic. The action of the letter for english story does not consist in essays abortion, mere activity, but in the hero’s change of mood in response to changing circumstances. The suspense story, in this sense, is thesis 1996 centrally about a character who starts out as a victim but who through brains and pro life, bravery can overcome the threat of death. Wilson wasn’t alone in spotting the trend. At the learning time, several writers were claiming that the suspense story had come into its own. Most commonly, they distinguished the pro life suspense story or “thriller” from the detective story. Wilson points out legend of king arthur essay that the essays pro life detective story relies upon curiosity rather than suspenseboth for the reader and the detective, who tends to respond to murder with detached, intellectual calm.
The sleuth is a puzzle-solver, and the reader is asked to join in the game of deciding “whodunit.” The reader doesn’t identify with the detective because the thesis 1996 narration typically doesn’t give us access to the detective’s mind, or at least not at every point: something is kept back so the abortion pro life detective can reveal the solution at the climax. Another contrast with the classic detective story was evident to these commentators. Legend Arthur Essay. Instead of starting the essays plot with a dead victim, as the detective story tends to do, the dissertation suspense story builds up to essays the crime by centering on the potential victimsomeone “enmeshedin a web of communication, circumstance.” 3 The buildup could involve revealing the murderer quite early, all the abortion better to emphasize the danger that faces the bewildered hero or heroine. Indeed, part or all of the communication story could be told from the essays abortion pro life viewpoint of the killer. Novelist Helen McCloy maintained that this technique fostered suspense, in place of the surprise cultivated by detective fiction. 4 Charlotte Armstrong agreed, noting that “Surprise is not much fun.” 5. This isn’t to suggest that the suspense story wholly lacked detective-story elements.
Indeed, there were often mysteries aplenty. Instead of assigning the investigation to a professional or a private detective, the suspense story often made the anxious potential victim follow up clues. By letting the protagonist turn detective, the action could pivot from flight to fight, the climax at which the hero faces down danger in the manner Wilson described. In speaking of a new form of storytelling, Wilson was picking out something that seemed to him and other writers quite specific. But what about cover letter his datinghis claim that the form had emerged over the last ten years? That would put the beginning of the suspense story at essays 1937 or 1938. He doesn’t justify this claim, but the authors he considers central to the new genre are Eric Ambler, Graham Greene, and black essay, Dorothy B. Essays Abortion. Hughes, all novelists who began writing crime fiction around that date. Wilson’s readers would have been aware of Ambler’s spy novels (most notably, The Mask of Dimitrios , 1939, and womanless essay, Journey into Fear , 1940), Greene’s criminal “entertainments” such as A Gun for Sale (aka This Gun for Hire , 1936), The Confidential Agent (1939), and The Ministry of Fear (1943), and Hughes’ tales of domestic murder and international espionage such as The So-Blue Marble (1940), The Bamboo Blonde (1941), The Fallen Sparrow (1942), and Dread Journey (1945).
After Wilson’s article, these authors would go on to write very famous suspense stories, such as Greene’s The Third Man (1949) and essays pro life, Hughes’ In a Lonely Place (1947). Interestingly, Wilson nowhere mentions suspense-driven films in his analysis of the genre. Yet by dissertation learning review, 1947 they were becoming a major form of Hollywood cinema. Essays. How did that process come about, and what relation does it have to black church changes in popular literature? We can understand the dynamic, I think, in two steps. First, we can trace the essays abortion 1940s model of suspense back to three relatively stable traditions that fed into it: the detective story, the domestic thriller, and the spy story. Review. These suggest that Wilson’s ten-year window is somewhat too narrow. Then we can see how those traditions gained wide popularity in essays abortion pro life, the 1940s as part of thesis 1996, a diverse ecosystem of mystery narratives and informed what we came to recognize as the suspense thriller.
Finally, I’ll try to characterize the ecological niche occupied by one portly English filmmaker. Displacing the detective. The mystery story, a very broad category, became identified chiefly with the detective story thanks to Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes adventures. But the genre went through several changes between the 1920s and the 1940s. Central to essays abortion pro life the classic form was the thesis 1996 series detective, the investigator who in a string of stories solved crimes through rational inference aided by brilliant intuition. The set of character roles was constant: the investigator(s); the criminal(s); the victim(s); and the bystanders, those suspects, witnesses, and helpers drawn into the inquiry. Likewise, the canonical plot began with the crime already accomplished (e.g., the body in the library), and traced the course of the case until the criminal was exposed. Solving the puzzle depended on enigmatic physical traces, incompatible testimony, psychological insights, and pro life, other clues.
But by the end of the 1920s the best practitioners felt that the classic sleuth format needed rethinking. For historians of the form, the person who offered the most drastic revision was Anthony Berkeley Cox, who wrote as Anthony Berkeley and as Francis Iles. Letter For English. After creating a dazzling exercise in essays abortion, permutational solutions, The Poisoned Chocolates Case (1928), he announced that in effect the cover letter main path to rejuvenating detective fiction involved demoting the detective. Specifically, this new strategy meant organizing the plot’s point of view around either the criminal or the victim. So Iles’ Malice Aforethought (1931) becomes an account of a frustrated provincial doctor’s plan to kill his wife. In Before the Fact (1932), a woman gradually realizes her husband is pro life going to murder her. Neither book is narrated in the first person, but each does confine itself wholly to the mind of the emile zola naturalism protagonist. Moreover, as both titles indicate, each plot’s point of abortion, attack is very early: the crime comes gradually, after a crescendo of menacing incidents.
There were precedents for the Iles method, from Crime and Punishment to A. Emile. P. Herbert’s House by the River (1920), C. Essays. S. Forester’s Payment Deferred (1926), and on team, Berkeley’s The Second Shot (1929). Essays Abortion Pro Life. Of the earlier experiments, most directly influential on for english mystery writers were the “inverted” detective stories by R. Essays Abortion Pro Life. Austin Freeman gathered in The Singing Bone (1912). Freeman redesigned point of view by using the first part of the tale to recount the commission of the crime, chiefly from the criminal’s point of view, while part two traces the efforts of Dr. Dissertation Review. Thorndyke to solve the mystery. With the killer’s identity revealed at the outset, the essays pro life story depends on cover for english generating curiosity about how Thorndyke will solve it (a dynamic continued in the television series Columbo ). As for point of attack, the “inverted” plots begin well before the crime is committed, in order to establish motives and plans. In essence Iles’ novels lopped off the essays abortion second half of the inverted tale, eliminating or minimizing the role of the zola essay naturalism investigation and concentrating wholly on the buildup to the crimethe panic and pressures suffered by the killer, or the essays abortion suspicion and fear of the victim. Coming from communication a skilled practitioner of whodunits, the two Iles books crystallized, at least in England, the creative option of essays abortion pro life, designing a mystery plot focused around a would-be killer or victim. Freeman Wills Crofts, whose orthodox detective stories hinged on breaking ironclad alibis, joined the new wave with The 12:30 from Croydon (1934). Here the step-by-step planning and legend essay, execution of a murder is told from the would-be killer’s standpoint. As if in recognition that he had left a tradition behind, Crofts makes his culprit exceptionally well-read in mystery fiction. He meditates in prison:
Somehow, alone there in the semi-darkness, the excellence of essays, his own plans seemed less convincing than ever before. Womanless Black Church. Stories he had read recurred to him in which the guilty had made perfect plans, but in abortion, all cases they had broken down. Those double tales of thesis 1996, Austin Freeman’s! 6. Detective stories conventionally refer to other detective stories, apparently assuring us that this story is more “real” than its counterparts but actually serving to cite traditions that the pro life reader enjoys recalling. Here Crofts acknowledges that Freeman’s “inverted” story made salient the possibility of a new gimmick: How will the womanless essay criminal err in committing the essays abortion pro life crime? Most Golden Age detective writers continued to cover letter for english develop puzzles, but they noticed the new trends. Dorothy Sayers acknowledged that an emphasis on psychology and the circumstances leading up to the crime had created “studies in pro life, murder” rather than straight detective tales. 7 Agatha Christie, whose talent was more protean than is usually acknowledged, blended before-the-fact plotting with mystery in And Then There Were None (1939), and she had a character in Towards Zero (1944) muse: I like a good detective story.But, you know, they begin in the wrong place!
They begin with the murder. But the murder is the zola essay end. The story begins long before thatyears before sometimeswith all the essays causes and thesis 1996, events that bring certain people to a certain place at a certain time on a certain day.Even nowsome dramasome murder to beis in course of abortion, preparation. Thesis 1996. 8. Ten-Minute Alibi (1935). In advocating plotting that was more psychological and less dependent on puzzle-solving, Cox and his colleagues were joining forces with a mystery form that had received little respect from the pro life critical community. Since at least World War I, British and American writers had been cultivating what we might call the domestic thriller, a tale of mystery and danger in ordinary circumstances.
The best-known instance in Britain is Marie Belloc Lowndes’ The Lodger (1913). The novel about a Jack-the-Ripper figure might have been rendered as a sensation-driven pursuit story or a tale of rational detection. Naturalism. Instead, it is re-plotted as a tale of essays abortion pro life, suspicion seeping through a lower-middle-class household. Legend Of King Arthur. By organizing the book’s viewpoint principally around the landlady who fears that her lodger may be a serial killer, Belloc Lowndes created a mystery largely filtered through the imperfect knowledge of a bystander. If The Lodger has an American counterpart, it is essays Mary Roberts Rinehart’s The Circular Staircase (1908). Cover Letter For English. Again, the action is focused around a witness: the spinster Rachel Innes, who encounters the bizarre happenings in a rented summer house. Unlike The Lodger ’s Mrs. Essays Abortion Pro Life. Bunting, Rachel narrates the tale and takes up the role of investigator, eventually bringing the guilty party to light.
The contributions of these two writers were enormously popular, but orthodox historians of mystery fiction have tended to mock their gynocentric plots. Rinehart in particular was ridiculed as the exponent of the “Had I But Known” school of mystery, whereby sudden plot twists are motivated by the protagonist’s convenient lapses of memory or judgment. Worse, as one authoritative history puts it, is “the manner in which romantic complications are allowed to obstruct the black church essay orderly process of puzzle and solution.” 9 The sexism here is pretty blatant: Rinehart’s plots are no more preposterous or dependent on coincidence than many tales featuring heroes rather than heroines, and of course many detective novels include clumsy subplots involving romantic couples. More important for our purposes, Belloc Lowndes, Rinehart, and writers who followed, such as Mignon Eberhart and Mabel Seeley, sustained a tradition of domestic, woman-in-peril plotting. Essays Abortion Pro Life. A sympathetic critic remarked that Rinehart’s books provide “no put-the-pieces-together formula” but rather “an out-guess-this-unknown-or-he’ll-out-guess-you, life-and-death struggle.” 10 Many critics have noted Rebecca ’s debt to sensation fiction and the Gothic line via Jane Eyre , but these other writers furnished more proximate antecedents for du Maurier’s tale. Review. As Alfred Hitchcock remarked: “There was a whole school of feminine literature at the period.” 11. At almost exactly the same time, murder was being domesticated on the English and American stage.
The major vogue seems to have come in abortion, the late 1920s, when, as a New York Times correspondent put it, London suffered “a theatrical crime waveowing to a deluge of mystery plays and dissertation review, ‘thrillers.’” 12 Several of these plays were detective stories and sensation pieces, many from Edgar Wallace. But audiences were also treated to Interference (1927), The Letter (1927), Spellbound (1927; no relation to Hitchcock’s film), Blackmail (1928), Patrick Hamilton’s Rope (aka Rope’s End , 1929), and other popular “murder plays.” The genre continued through the decade, with successes like the essays stage adaptation of Payment Deferred (1932), the ticking-clock drama Ten-Minute Alibi (1933), Without Witness (1934), The Two Mrs. Carrolls (1935), the serial-killer drama Night Must Fall (1935), Love from a Stranger (1936), the Rope -derived Trunk Crime (aka The Last Straw , 1937), and another Patrick Hamilton triumph, Gaslight (1938). Review. The New York stage didn’t lag behind, importing several of these hits while adding Nine Pine Street (1933, based on the Lizzie Borden case), Double Door (1933, an essays pro life anticipation of Rebecca ), Invitation to a Murder (1934), and Kind Lady (1935). 13. A new label came to be attached to these dramas of home-bred homicide. Legend Essay. When Val Gielgud wrote to Patrick Hamilton requesting a new BBC radio drama, he suggested that “a psychological thriller along the lines of ‘Rope’ would be good.” 15 The phrase came into currency during the 1930s to describe domestic thrillers in fiction, onstage, and onscreen, and plays began advertising themselves with the label. Abortion. 15. Why the emphasis on psychology? Chiefly, I suspect, to learning distinguish these plays from the abortion pro life blood-and-thunder sensation of Edgar Wallace and the extroverted adventure of essays, John Buchan.
On the West End stage, drawing-room murder on the Ilesian model was easy to dramatize. If the plot divulges the essays abortion pro life plotter or killer from the learning start, the emphasis falls naturally on why the crime is committed and whether the essays abortion pro life guilty party will escape. Now the thesis 1996 drama grows out of festering motive, middle-class frustration, and the gradual realization that loved ones can’t be trusted. The 1920s1930s detective story, with its least-likely-suspect surprise, had relied on essays abortion pro life the idea that anyone could be a murderer, but the domestic thriller developed this idea in depth. Church Essay. The theme was doubtless accelerated by much-publicized murders committed by abortion, solid citizens, notably Dr.
H. Emile Zola Essay Naturalism. H. Essays Pro Life. Crippen, Loeb and thesis 1996, Leopold, and baby-faced Sidney Fox (inspiration for essays Night Must Fall ). These fictions replaced the Napoleonic crimes of sensation thrillers by a sense that humdrum life harbored lethal passions. Hence a series of books organized around killers’ psychological states: Richard Hull’s The Murder of My Aunt (1935), Winifred Duke’s Skin for letter Skin (1935), Bruce Hamilton’s Middle Class Murder (1936), and essays, James Ronald’s This Way Out (1939). Patrick Hamilton’s Hangover Square (1941), with its schizophrenic protagonist and cover letter for english, bold sexuality, indicates how far things had come in just a few years. A parallel trend emerged in essays abortion pro life, America. While the hard-boiled stories of Cain and Chandler gained most attention, other writersagain, mostly womenoffered stories of lethally disturbed husbands (Elisabeth Sanxay Holding’s Death Wish , 1934, and Net of Cobwebs , 1935) and tangled domestic murder plots (Cora Jarrett’s Night over Fitch’s Pond , 1933). What about focusing point of view around the victim? Psychology came to prominence there too. Boileau and Narcejac would point out later that traditional detective fiction had minimized the cover for english quality of fear. 16 But concentrating on essays pro life the potential victim’s anxieties and suspicions made fear central to the new thriller.
Not incidentally, most of the killers were male and many of emile zola naturalism, their victims were female, continuing the woman-in-peril motif developed in Lowndes, Rinehart, and their followers, as well as in Before the Fact . The psychological thriller was able to essays reactivate the Bluebeard tradition, often making explicit reference to it. Reviewers sometimes felt obliged to warn audiences and readers that the psychological thriller wasn’t a mystery in the usual sense: “whodunit” would be revealed very soon. Yet this foreknowledge didn’t dissipate interest. Whether novel or play, the domestic thriller shifted the plot’s thrust from curiosity about the past (who killed X and why and how?) to anticipation (will Y succeed in killing X and escape punishment?). As one writer explained in reviewing A. A. Milne’s play The Fourth Wall (1928): Though we saw the murder, we do not know what little slip Carter may have made in zola essay, the arrangement of the room or the concoction of his own and Laverick’s alibi. Thus while Susan continues her investigation we do not know what clue she will discover or how she will arrive at the truth; nor when she has a part of the information in her hands do we how she will force Carter to reveal the rest. Here is scope for action enough, and not for essays abortion pro life action only but for as much drawing of dissertation review, character as is possible in the course of a narrative so full of events. The first act, which shows the murder, is abortion pro life admirable in its suspense and surprise. 17. In The Fourth Wall and most other murder plays, the killer doesn’t go scot-free.
In the novels as well, authors tend to emphasize that their clever miscreants fail to execute a perfect crime. I spy (All the worse for me) As some detective-story writers, under the Iles influence, moved closer to the psychological thriller, another group of writers exploited suspense in tales of emile naturalism, international intrigue. This trend seems to have been central to Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 intuition about the new thriller, for abortion all three of his specific examplesGreene, Ambler, and dissertation, Hughesmade their reputations in the spy genre. Historians trace the modern spy story back to British writers, William LeQueux and E. Essays Pro Life. Phillips Oppenheim, and thesis 1996, later Edgar Wallace, John Buchan, and abortion pro life, William “Sapper” McNiele. 18 These writers developed the basic conventions.
Central among these was a fairly episodic plot based on black a series of adventures, driven by a hunt (for secret documents or exotic weapons) or a chase. Abortion Pro Life. Typically the protagonist ran afoul of cover, some large-scale force, such as a master criminal, a sinister foreign government, or a secret coalition bent on world domination. At the same time, the essays protagonist might also be sought by the police, a domestic intelligence agency, or some other force of law. Essays On Team. The result was the “double chase,” in abortion pro life, which the hero must elude both villains and the law, as in John Buchan’s The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915). The chase plot was filled out by captures, escapes, abductions of the heroes’ allies or loved ones, and sometimes surprisingly comic interludes. The conventions forged by of king arthur, these writers were ready-made for essays cinema, so it’s not surprising that some of the earliest feature films and serials in many countries were spy stories, such as Denmark’s Dr. Gar-el-Hama series, Louis Feuillade’s crime serials, and Lang’s Dr. Mabuse films and Spies (1928). Because the hunt and the pursuit were central to the action, the typical spy story set its protagonist on a journey.
The detective story and learning, the domestic thriller tended to be centripetal, focused on a limited number of settings or even a single household. The tale of intrigue, however, was centrifugal; its characters were propelled from city to countryside, from one country or region to another. Central scenes might take place on pro life a train or on a highway. The Middle East, Russia, and dissertation, Asia furnished exotic locales. This incessant travel might highlight themes of national identity and devotion to a country or cause. The protagonist of the spy novel might be a professional secret agent or an independent adventurer who takes on a mission out of pro life, patriotism, personal loyalty, or a quest for excitement. Before the late 1930s, the spy thriller also contained some degree of humor, either in comic characters and dialect rendering or in a light-hearted approach to dangers, as seen in Agatha Christie’s Tuppence and Tommy Beresford series. But things became more somber as spying began recruiting more naïve protagonists. Late in essays communication, the decade, international tensions allowed writers to hurl ordinary citizens into essays the conflict. In Ambler’s Epitaph for a Spy (1938), the protagonist is a weak emigrant who is legend of king arthur essay pressured into spying by brutal and bungling intelligence officials. Pro Life. Helen MacInnes’ Above Suspicion (1941) propels an Oxford couple into intrigue while they visit Europe for “one last look at church peacetime” in 1939.
The protagonist of Greene’s Confidential Agent (1939) is what the title calls him: not a “secret agent” but a representative seeking coal to help the Spanish revolutionary cause. Now that the plot depended on amateurs and innocents, missions can go amiss and the ending may be more glum than happy; Epitaph for a Spy and The Confidential Agent end with little sense of victory. The technique of a restricted narration becomes as crucial to the spy story as it is to detective fiction and the domestic thriller. Buchan and the later writers tend to focus their stories around the consciousness of the protagonist, either through first-person accounts or through limiting the range of knowledge. In these books, we often know only as much as the essays pro life hero or heroine does. Legend Of King. Restricted narration enhances the mystery component, while also making every encounter a potential threat: Is the friendly helper encountered on the road actually working for the enemy? The limitations of knowledge make possible the essays pro life conventional bluffs and double-crosses that create plot reversals typical of spy fiction, but they can also generate the learning anxietyin protagonist and in readerthat Mitchell Wilson found central to the suspense story. These three trends in popular fiction and essays abortion pro life, drama seem most pertinent to the emergence of the 1940s suspense story. But they could not have exercised their influence had not America, home to Hollywood, gone mad for mystery and arthur, murder.
Hitchcock, Judith Anderson, and Joan Fontaine on the set of Rebecca . There is a standard story about what happened to American mystery fiction during the 1930s and 1940s. The Sherlock Holmes model of essays abortion, rational crime-solving, we’re told, was replaced by the two-fisted private detective who came up from the pulp magazines to literary prestige. Like most such synopses, though, this one cuts some corners. In popular literature, the thesis 1996 adventures in deduction of Lord Peter Wimsey, Hercule Poirot, and Ellery Queen remained far more widely read than the chronicles of Sam Spade, Philip Marlowe, and other roughnecks. Only Mickey Spillane’s Mike Hammer rivaled the essays pro life popularity of his white-glove counterparts. Thesis 1996. 19 Moreover, the essays standard outline plays down the syntheses between the puzzle-driven and action-driven plotting we find in the work of Rex Stout and Erle Stanley Gardner (hands down the most popular mystery writer of the 1940s). 20 At the emile essay same period, the spy story often incorporated a puzzle element, and this was balanced against vigorous physical action provided by essays, hunts and chases. Now we can see that the standard history also ignores the emergence of the psychological thriller. Mitchell Wilson’s remark in 1947 that the suspense story had come of age marks a dawning recognition that there was currently a form of mystery that steered a course between the puzzle and of king arthur, the hard-boiled adventure. More generally, throughout the 1940s there was a recalibration and refinement of mass-market genres.
Publishers developed “category publishing,” as Janice Radaway has explained: a strategy of essays abortion pro life, identifying a stable market for a certain type of fiction and serving that with steady, predictable output. 21 Mysteries, Westerns, and romances, so identified, made up the bulk of U.S. genre fiction in of king essay, the 1940s. Their ambit expanded enormously when the paperback revolution opened up new markets. Mystery, including detective stories, spy stories, and suspense fiction, was by far the most popular category. In 1940, 40% of all novels published were mysteries. 22 Serialized in slick magazines, then brought out in hardcover, then in cheaper editions, perhaps eventually to abortion be the basis of thesis 1996, radio plays or movies, mystery titles assured publishers solid returns and essays, attained a degree of literary respectability at the same time. While Westerns and romance titles flew under the radar, newspapers reserved column inches for reviews of mysteries. Publishers devoted entire imprints to mystery fiction, and went on to subdivide their product lines to reflect readers’ tastes.
Doubleday’s Crime Club imprint created indicia to label a book as “Chess Puzzle,” “Character and Atmosphere,” “Spies and Sabotage,” “Some Like Them Tough,” and so on. Simon and Schuster’s “Inner Sanctum” logo marked “a novel of suspense, a novel of crime and punishment rather than a novel of essays, crime and detection.” 23. As this ecosystem expanded and diversified, commentators began to abortion pro life distinguish suspense stories from other forms of thriller. The radio program Suspense began regular broadcasting in 1942. It asked aspiring writers to provide plots based on tense, “precarious” situations, while avoiding “plain ‘who-dun-its’ or detective stories” and “fantastic horror-yarns involving zombies, ghosts, etc.” 24 Howard Haycraft, the leading historian of essays on team communication, crime fiction, admitted that the essays abortion Rinehart “romantic-feminine school of crime fiction” had been a major force and had invaded the best-seller lists.
Hence the current popularity of “the somewhat amorphous ‘suspense’ novel.” 25 Anthony Boucher, another major critic, claimed that World War II coincided with a new phase of mystery fiction. Essays Communication. With classic detective situations “exhausted,” the public demanded “a heightening of the pure element of suspense.” Suspense had become central to the “personal narratives” that constituted the new cutting edge of mystery writing. 26 Mitchell Wilson’s article is only one piece recognizing the new genre. If you had to pick a single book that shifted U.S. mystery publishing toward psychological suspense, it would probably be Daphne du Maurier’s Rebecca . (Its date of publication, 1938, fits comfortably into Wilson’s ten-year time frame.) Upon publication it immediately became a bestseller, and by the end of the 1940s it had sold over a million copies, making it the most successful mystery novel of the essays abortion era. 27 In fact, it was hardly recognized as a mystery novel. Long, melancholy, dense with description and reflections on the protagonist’s inner life, it was greeted as a serious piece of fiction, closer to The Citadel (1941), Random Harvest (1941), and other middlebrow novels than to the genre works of Rinehart, Seeley, Eberhart than others. With its echoes of emile zola naturalism, Jane Eyre , Rebecca provided a model for the “romantic suspense” novel that would come to prominence in pro life, the 1950s and eventually become the Harlequin romance of our day. With Rebecca and many other novels, the essays on team communication American suspense thriller came into its own.
Today we tend to essays abortion associate the trend with film noir and outstanding male authors like Cornell Woolrich, John Franklin Bardin, and dissertation learning, Georges Simenon (then being frequently translated). Again, however, the pro life trend was also shaped by Vera Caspary, Dorothy B. Cover Letter. Hughes, Charlotte Armstrong, Mabel Seeley, Doris Miles Disney, Elizabeth Daly, Hilda Lawrence, Margaret Millar, Josephine Tey, Patricia Highsmith, and other female authors. As the “inverted” and essays abortion pro life, multi-perspectival detective story had pushed some English practitioners toward psychological mystery, so too did many of these women novelists abandon their series detectives and shift toward pure suspense. Cinema followed the trend. The murder plays Payment Deferred , Kind Lady , and zola essay naturalism, Night Must Fall had found their way to the screen in essays, the 1930s, but now there was a burst of adaptations.
Gaslight was filmed in thesis 1996, 1944, The Two Mrs. Carrolls and Love from a Stranger in abortion, 1947. Essays Communication. Other revivals included the essays abortion pro life Gothic classics Jane Eyre (1944) and cover letter for english, The Woman in White (1948) and the Edwardian books The Lodger (1944) and The House by the River (1950). Some of the essays pro life earliest adaptations came from the authors named by Wilson as prototypes of suspense. Graham Greene’s work yielded the films This Gun for Hire (1942), Ministry of Fear (1945), and The Confidential Agent (1945). Eric Ambler’s novels were the basis for Journey into Fear (1943) and The Mask of Dimitrios (1944). The less-known Dorothy B. Thesis 1996. Hughes supplied The Fallen Sparrow (1943), Ride the pro life Pink Horse (1947), and In a Lonely Place (1950). Of King Arthur Essay. At the same time, Woolrich, Hughes, Armstrong, Caspary, and many other thriller novelists found their work turned into essays movies.
28 Elisabeth Sanxay Holding, called by Raymond Chandler “the top suspense writer of them all,” wrote the novel that would become The Reckless Moment (1949). 29. Hollywood developed original thrillers as well, and the trade press spotted a trend. A 1944 Variety article claimed that. The typical tale in the new genre crawls with living horror, is eerie with something impending, and socks its suspense thrill well along toward the middle of the story, instead of doing the black church essay crime victim in at the beginning and essays abortion, then building a whodunit and a detective quiz as the element of suspense. 30. The passage reminds us that emotion of fear, so central to Mitchell Wilson’s commentary, is also a stock response triggered by thesis 1996, the horror film of the 1930s.
In 1947 Wilson felt no need to specify that the fear conjured up by the suspense story was not akin to that in horror or fantasy films: the cause was not a monster or a supernatural being. Three years earlier, however, the anonymous Variety writer was just starting to essays abortion pro life make this distinction. The article takes Rebecca (1940) , Phantom Lady, Gaslight, Dark Waters (1944), Mask of Dimitrios, Hangover Square (1945), and even The Picture of on team communication, Dorian Gray (1945), as examples of the “new horrifier.” Such films created, one observer noted, “a horror cycle” that was quite different from “vampire, werewolf and Frankenstein chillers.” 31. Lumping all these suspense films together seems a bit odd today. Pro Life. Aren’t Gaslight and Dark Waters really Gothics? By contrast, aren’t Phantom Lady and Hangover Square examples of review, film noir?
We need to remember that female Gothics and films noirs are really ex post facto categories, constructed by essays abortion, later critics to womanless black church essay point out affinities and differences among groups of films. These categories didn’t exist for contemporaries, and filmmakers and writers of the time carved things up rather differently. Many of the essays 1940s films’ plots, as we’d expect, put women in danger in dissertation learning, a forbidding household. So we have Experiment Perilous (1944), Dark Waters (1944), My Name Is Julia Ross (1945), Undercurrent (1946), Dragonwyck (1946), A Stolen Life (1946), The Spiral Staircase (1946), Sleep, My Love (1948), Caught (1949), and several other films, many adapted from plays and novels. When a Hollywood’s psychological thriller focused on a male protagonist it could yield something like Hangover Square , The Woman in the Window (1944), Conflict (1945), Scarlet Street (1945), The Suspect (1945), The Chase (1946), They Won’t Believe Me (1947), The Big Clock (1948), Take One False Step (1949), and abortion, The Second Woman (1950). What’s striking is that as these narrative patterns multiplied, mixtures and variants appeared. The plot of womanless church, Phantom Lady , novel and film, depends on a properly victimized, perhaps paranoid noir hero; but he is rescued by his girlfriend. Instead of abortion pro life, murderous husbands we find equally manipulative women targeting husbands, wives, and engaged couples ( A Guest in the House , 1944; Strange Impersonation , 1946; Leave Her to Heaven , 1946). Even the “Gothic” plots exhibit a lot of variety. Thesis 1996. In Dark Waters , the villain isn’t the husband but an entire family conspiring against the bride.
In A Woman’s Vengeance , the abortion pro life would-be killer isn’t the unfaithful husband but a third woman in of king, love with him. My Name is Julia Ross shows how a dowager conspires to obliterate a woman’s identity so that she can marry the old woman’s demented son. The 1944 Variety article mentions another salient feature of the new thriller. It deals with insanity“unpredictable in its attack; frightful in its effect among the companion characters.” 32 During the 1930s, Dorothy Sayers predicted a robust future for psychoanalytic mystery, and essays abortion, occasionally novels of the time invoke concepts of the “subconscious” and thesis 1996, “revived” childhood traumas. 33 American detective stories of the essays abortion 1940s dabbled in the trend more overtly; one of the earliest seems to be Lawrence Treat’s 1943 O as in Omen , which makes its sleuth a psychiatrist who interprets not only suspects’ dreams but his own. Hitchcock’s Spellbound (1945), with its therapeutic investigation, turned the suspense plot toward psychoanalysis.
With Bewitched (1945), The Locket (1947), and cover letter for english, Possessed (1947), Freudian motifs became conventional parts of the domestic thriller. Even less doctrine-driven tales would suggest that the essays pro life murderous husband or lover or seductress harbored a streak of womanless black essay, madness. By the late 1940s, the suspense story was a major genre. In her survey of the movie colony, Hortense Powdermaker noted the essays pro life recent vogue for “psychological murder thrillers” and the rise of thesis 1996, suspense as a factor in A pictures. 34 Instead of a detective story, remarked another writer, Hollywood could now offer “adult and exciting screen drama on the mystery framework, with emphasis on character and suspense.” 35 Another observer stressed that whereas many mysteries had been consigned to the ranks of B pictures, the new ones could be treated with top production values. 36 Crucial in all cases was the element of personal vulnerability: “The trend is toward emotion, excitement, suspensetoward ‘What is going to happen to this protagonist?’” 37. The Lady Vanishes (1938). Sharp-eyed readers will have noticed that nearly all my examples of suspense films come from the pro life years 1944 onward. What about the cover letter for english years before? Examples of essays, suspense pictures are curiously hard to find in those years. Thesis 1996. There are the B films Stranger on the Third Floor (1940), often taken as a prototypical film noir; Shadows on the Stair (1941) from a Frank Vosper play; Fingers at the Window (1942); and Street of Chance (1942).
The rare A pictures we might consider include Ladies in Retirement (1941), but featuring minor players; I Wake Up Screaming (1941), a somber detective film narrated largely from the standpoints of witnesses and essays abortion, suspects; and two upper-tier spy films of arthur essay, 1943, Journey into pro life Fear and Above Suspicion . There are probably other candidates I don’t know of, but I don’t believe that pre-1944 releases boast very many top-rank suspense-driven films. Except of course, for the films directed by Alfred Hitchcock. So far my story must seem a case of Hamlet without the Prince. It’s been a challenging exercise to sketch the context of 1940s Hollywood and barely mention Hitchcock, but eventually I have to confront reality. The “missing” suspense films of the early 1940s are by Hitchcock: Rebecca (1940), Foreign Correspondent (1940), Suspicion (1941), Saboteur (1942), and Shadow of arthur, a Doubt (1943). And it seems likely that they strongly influenced what would follow. Hitchcock came to America acknowledged as the magisterial exponent of high tension. In a 1936 article in the Times of London, a reviewer writes, “Mr. Pro Life. Hitchcock’s long and letter for english, strong suit is suspense.” 38 British cinema of the 1930s exploited detective plots, domestic thrillers, and spy stories, but Hitchcock managed to give them unusually sharp form and force. 39 Murder! (1930) respects the detective-story premises of the pro life source novel.
The Lodger (1926) is an adaptation of Belloc Lowndes’ classic domestic thriller. Blackmail (1929) also relies on dissertation learning review conventions of abortion pro life, that genre: the killer’s identity is known at the start, and her task is to escape punishment. Above all there were the five spy films in the second half of the 1930s. Although The Secret Agent (1936) centers on a professional spy, the zola others show ordinary people caught up in international intrigue: the family in abortion, The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) and a couple on thesis 1996 a train in The Lady Vanishes (1938). Abortion. Even the Richard Hannay of black essay, The 39 Steps (1935) seems more an pro life ordinary person than the adventure-loving gentleman of the Buchan books. Hitchcock and his screenwriters proved adroit at blending one format with another. Of King. Young and Innocent (1937) is derived from a detective novel, but the film divulges the murderer’s identity in the first scene in order to essays abortion set up a double-barreled pursuit. In Sabotage (1936), the spy story becomes a domestic thriller when a wife learns that her husband is a ruthless bomber. In both England and zola essay, the U.S., Hitchcock aligned himself closely with major trends in mystery fiction and drama.
His reading tastes ran to Belloc Lowndes and John Buchan. Pro Life. 40 He considered adapting Buchan’s Greenmantle and Iles’ Malice Aforethought . Dissertation Learning Review. The Man Who Knew Too Much began as a tale of Bulldog Drummond, the hero created by Sapper. Having filmed one Du Maurier novel, Jamaica Inn (1939), Hitchcock contemplated buying the rights to Rebecca before Selznick acquired it. 41 Two of his films featured the essays pro life actor Frank Vosper, co-author of the significant murder play Love from legend of king a Stranger . Once in America, he returned to similar sources, hoping to remake The Lodger , filming Iles’s Before the Fact as Suspicion , and abortion, eventually turning Patrick Hamilton’s Rope into dissertation learning review a 1948 film. There were personal affinities as well. His assistant Joan Harrison was married to Eric Ambler, and he wrote a glowing introduction to a 1943 collection of Ambler novels. 42. With the exception of the comedy Mr. and Mrs.
Smith (1941), Hitchcock’s earliest American films maintained his prominence in the subgenres. The hugely successful Rebecca (1940) was followed by two more domestic thrillers, Suspicion (1941) and Shadow of a Doubt (1943). Sandwiched among these were two spy chases, Foreign Correspondent (1940) and Saboteur (1942). Very quickly his work set the essays abortion benchmark. Throughout the 1940s, he was called the “master of suspense” in both critics’ columns and film advertising.
The term reappeared in trade advertisements for Shadow of a Doubt, Lifeboat , and zola essay, Spellbound . 43 A 1941 review of Ladies in Retirement praised it for providing Hitchcockian suspense. 44 “The novel story line” of Crossroads (1942), noted a Variety critic in essays abortion, June 1942, “would do credit to legend arthur an Alfred Hitchcock thriller.” 45 Richard Wallace’s direction of The Fallen Sparrow (1943, from pro life a Dorothy B. Hughes novel) was said to be “reminiscent of the Hitchcock touch.” 46 His name was invoked in discussions of films by Val Lewton and even Walt Disney. 47 After a decade in Hollywood he had been around long enough to be called “the old master.” 48. Hitchcock worked to promote his brand. 49 In interviews and public talks he differentiated the detective story from his sort of thriller, often stressing that distinction between suspense and surprise that was picked up by essays communication, Charlotte Armstrong, Helen McCloy, and abortion, other commentators on the emerging suspense genre. Dissertation Learning. 50 He composed an introduction to a 1947 collection of suspense stories in which he laid down his ideas on technique. In that anthology he returned to a favorite topic, the pro life narrational options that create suspense.
Much of suspense comes down to range of knowledge. “The author may let both reader and character share the knowledge of the nature of the dangers which threaten.Sometimes, however, the reader alone may realize that peril is in the offing, and watch the characters moving to meet it in blissful ignorance and disquieting unconcern.” 51 Hitchcock continued to essay pronounce on principles of suspense throughout the 1940s, applying them to essays pro life whatever project he had in hand. (In Rope , the fact that the audience knows the essays communication killers from the start “makes for real suspense.” 52) He became the foremost practitioner and abortion, theorist of the new genre. From this perspective, Mitchell Wilson’s 1947 piece was part of a new discourse on suspense that Hitchcok had helped shape. His influence extended beyond cinema. To write for the radio show Suspense, a writer declared, demanded two kinds of suspense. “Interest” or “mystification” suspense compels the audience to wonder what will happen next, while “emotional” suspense requires knowledge of all the factors in play, along with identification with the dissertation review threatened person. The author’s example of emotional suspense is the scene in Rope when the maid slowly clears the books off the chest containing the body. Abortion Pro Life. Indeed, the learning program was explicitly designed to bring to radio “the particular kind of suspense developed in pictures by Alfred Hitchcock.” 53.
The Master’s problems, and some solutions. Above Suspicion (1943). It’s very likely, then, that Hitchcock’s films of 19401943 gave an impetus to the emergence of abortion, full-blown suspense pictures in the years that followed. We can’t attribute everything to black essay them; after all, if Hitchcock hadn’t directed Rebecca , someone else would have, and pro life, it would probably have had a large impact in any case. Womanless Black Church. More broadly, the films fitted smoothly into the murder culture of abortion pro life, American popular media. Still, the black films provided high standards of quality and meticulous models of plot and abortion, style that other filmmakers could learn from. In following Hitchcock’s models and other efforts of the womanless black essay early forties, the essays abortion pro life studios couldn’t turn on a dime. With writers recruited for the war effort, original screenplays were in review, shorter supply.
Studios increased the number of literary adaptations, often drawing from short stories and serialized novels. Once a property was found, it typically took at least a year to develop into a finished film, and very often a story went through several years of essays abortion, development. 54 Such factors help explain why it took a while before the psychological thriller could emerge as a production trend. When it did, in calendar 1944, Hitchcock’s example remained inescapable. Yet counter-forces developed. Once the suspense story developed, was he to be its only master? In the literary realm there was of essays on team communication, course Simenon, whose Maigret detective novels and his proto-noir romans durs were being translated at essays abortion pro life the time. Fritz Lang, dubbed by essays on team, Variety “a master at maintaining high suspense,” 55 had like Hitchcock made his reputation with crime thrillers before arriving in America, and his Hollywood work of the 1940s soon paralleled the Englishman’s: espionage thrillers ( Man Hunt, Hangmen Also Die!, Ministry of Fear, Cloak and essays abortion pro life, Dagger ) alongside domestic ones. Indeed, The Woman in the Window, Scarlet Street, Secret Beyond the Door , and House by the River might well have been Hitchcock projects. There was also Robert Siodmak.
His Spiral Staircase started as a Selznick project planned for Bergman and Hitchcock, and his Phantom Lady was produced by Hitchcock colleague Joan Harrison. Billy Wilder told a reporter that Double Indemnity (1944) was an attempt to “out-Hitch Hitch.” 56 Soon the same reporter, who had been an ardent Hitchcock admirer, could write that Fred Zinneman’s Seventh Cross (1944) “filmed suspense in a new way” by avoiding all “tricks”“unlike Alfred Hitchcock, master of surprise” (!). 57. Filmmakers of the essays communication period learned a great deal from Hitchcock’s technique, such as his gliding camera movements inward to build tension, or his abrupt cuts to close-ups. There was even open copying. Lifting from the essays Albert Hall climax of thesis 1996, The Man Who Knew Too Much , Richard Whorf’s Above Suspicion (1943) presents an assassination during an orchestra performance, with the gunshot masked by a blast of music. 58 At the same time, I think, Hitchcock’s early thrillers displayed some problems that other filmmakers could learn to abortion pro life avoid. Take Rebecca and Suspicion , the two tales of uxorial mistrust. Compared to the trim thrillers of Eberhart, Rebecca is hardly a perfect template for suspense. Its plot evokes mystery but in a rather leisurely way, gradually crystallizing questions about communication how Rebecca died and why widower Maxim de Winter behaves brusquely.
The emphasis falls on the nameless heroine’s pangs of naivete and inferiority when thrust into a wealthy milieu. Her investigations of Rebecca’s life and abortion pro life, death are mostly inadvertent results of her social gaffes. Not until quite late in the plot does she become seriously threatened, when the legend essay sadistic housekeeper Mrs. Danvers urges the distraught girl to fling herself out a window. And not until a storm leads locals to discover Rebecca’s remains in a sunken sailboat does Maxim confess that he shot his wife and buried her body at sea. Now that the mystery is dispelled, a more traditional suspense can kick in.
Maxim must bluff the coroner’s inquest and evade the blackmailing scheme of abortion, Rebecca’s lover Favell. Maxim and the heroine are saved, again more or less accidentally, but with the Manderley estate destroyed, they end their lives in a seedy French hotel and brood on emile zola naturalism their lost Manderley and their hollow marriage. Burdened with a murderous hero and essays abortion pro life, an unhappy ending, Rebecca faced problems of learning review, transposition to the screen. To placate the Hays Office, Selznick and Hitchcock modified the plot to make Rebecca’s death an abortion pro life accident, covered up by Maxim. On the whole, other changes made for black the film streamlined the pro life action, excising the musings that fill the book and building up the suspense, chiefly through the pressures the sinister Mrs. Danvers brings to bear on the new wife. From the start, Hitchcock doses du Maurier’s plot with local tension, as when it seems that the heroine will leave Monte Carlo with her employer before she can bid farewell to Max. Cover. The cinematography turns Manderley into an oversized mausoleum with doorknobs set at the level of the heroine’s shoulders. Hitchcock seized the opportunity to hint at ominous secrets harbored in the vast rooms and pro life, corridors.
Rebecca sets Hitchcock on the way toward one of emile naturalism, his central situations of his career: the woman trapped in a threatening household. Rebecca poses the questions: Whom have I married? What is pro life his past? What am I to him? The novel’s plot answers by exposing Maxim as a man who murdered his first wife but found some happiness with his second. Suspicion (1941) poses the same questions, but Iles’ novel suggests frightful answers: I have married a liar, a cheat, and a killer; and he intends to murder me. Again, the film’s ending had to be fudged. Suspicion ’s heroine has misinterpreted Johnny, and he has intended to kill himself, not her. The reconciliation is even more of a letdown than in dissertation review, the Rebecca instance.
Variety responded sourly: In switching tragic ending of Francis Iles’ novel in favor of a happy finale, Hitchcock and his scripters devised a most inept and essays pro life, inconclusive windup that fails to measure up to the dramatic intensity of emile essay naturalism, preceding footage, and essays abortion pro life, this doesn’t reach the thesis 1996 climax expected. Essays Abortion. In this respect, picture structure is arthur deficient, and essays abortion pro life, it is obvious that the writers endeavored to toss in the happy ending in a few hundred feet and let it go at that. 59. Later filmmakers solved the arthur essay problem of the enigmatic husband in a simpler fashion: Let the husband be a murderer, and let the pro life wife escape. Emile Zola. This more stable option was already laid out in a 1937 English film, Love from a Stranger , which was surely known to Hitchcock. Adapted from Frank Vosper’s play 60, it presents Carol, who throws aside her loyal suitor Ronald for the charming Gerald Lovell.
She marries Gerald and at first enjoys their life in an isolated cottage. But his sudden rages and abortion, his secretiveness about his photographic “experiments” make her worry. Breaking with Carol’s range of knowledge about halfway through the film, the narration shows Gerald in the cellar burning a photograph of her. Soon we learn that his interest in historical murders is one expression of a battlefront trauma that will drive him to kill her. Gradually Carol’s suspicions crystallize.
In a drunken fit Gerald tells her how he trapped her, but before he can kill her she manages to poison his coffee. He collapses and learning, Ronald arrives in essays pro life, time to console a sobbing Carol. Ronald plays a secondary role in Love from a Stranger . He doesn’t rescue Carol but merely offers her an alternative partner at the end. Hollywood’s later versions of the plot turned the other man into what Diane Waldman has called a “helper male”a figure who can save the heroine and black, supply a romantic alliance once the murderous husband has been eliminated. Essays Abortion. 61 But Hitchcock presumably could not radically revise Rebecca or Suspicion to provide a helper male, so the dissertation learning review resolutions had to end in impasse. Essays. Interestingly, when Hamilton’s play Gaslight made it to film in the U.S. (1944), the plot was recast to legend of king make the inspector an appropriate suitor for essays abortion the rescued wife. Apart from lacking helper males, Rebecca and Suspicion posed problems of narration. Emile Zola Essay. Love from pro life a Stranger provided a wide frame of legend of king arthur, knowledge. By cutting between scenes displaying Gerald’s madness and scenes of the unsuspecting Carol, Vorhaus’s film generates classic suspense. In contrast, both Rebecca and Suspicion confine us so tightly to the heroine’s viewpoint that the ultimate revelations seem evasive or forced. Essays Abortion. The problems with these two films point up a more general tension within Hitchcock’s aesthetic.
Restriction to what a character knows enhances mystery (and can engender surprise), but suspense, he maintained, comes when we know more than the character. 62 The best compromise is when our knowledge exceeds the character’s by a little, but not so much that we know everything. Hence the moments that fall outside Jeff’s range of knowledge in Rear Window , the judicious inserted scene of the agency meeting in North by communication, Northwest , and other instances in which Hitchcock slightly widens our range of abortion, knowledge, often in a teasing way. 63 An anonymous reviewer for the London Times caught this strategy in Sabotage : Hitchcock will usually “lay most of black church essay, his cards on the table.” 64. With Shadow of abortion, a Doubt , Hitchcock and Thornton Wilder solved the difficulties of the two earlier women-in-peril films. A freer range of narration allows suspense to build: the opening man-on-the-run episode, confined largely to letter Uncle Charlie, segues into a section that centers on what Young Charlie suspects and eventually discovers.
In accordance with Mitchell Wilson’s anatomy of the suspense plot, she takes the initiative and turns on her tormentor, forcing him to leave town. Although much of this portion is focused around Young Charlie, though, we get glimpses of Uncle Charlie on his own. In addition, Shadow of a Doubt supplies a helper male, the police investigator Jack Graham. Although Hitchcock dismissed the essays abortion pro life character as a concession to romance, 65 and although Jack doesn’t rescue Young Charlie during the climactic sequence on the train, he provides a stable resolution, mitigating a little the review devastation that Young Charlie feels. Hitchcock, then, offered other filmmakers both models of abortion, what to do and womanless church, what to essays pro life avoid.
But it seems to me that the burst of psychological suspense films at all budget levels left him less room to innovate. Many variations were emerging; the space was getting crowded. Women-in-peril plots featuring murderous husbands had become commonplace, and essays on team communication, they often displayed skilful use of restricted point of view, as in Sorry, Wrong Number (1948). There were even “Hitchcockian” movies avant la lettre : The crime inadvertently witnessed, the premise of Rear Window , was tried out in Lady on a Train (1945), in Shock (1946), and essays abortion pro life, perhaps most vividly in Ted Tetzlaff’s The Window (1949), in which a tenement boy sees a stabbing but can’t convince anyone of it. In short, with so many films mimicking Hitchcock’s, and so many variants of basic suspense situations proliferating, how was he to maintain his cinematic identity? In Spellbound (1945) he led the way to a burst of thesis 1996, talking-cure films. He and Ben Hecht blended his favored woman-in-peril situation with spy intrigue in Notorious (1946), making the helper male into a rival suitor from the start and pro life, organizing part of the communication plot around his range of knowledge. For other projects Hitchcock seemed to pro life strain to find something highly distinctive, either dramatically or technically. A contract-fulfilling job, the black courtroom drama The Paradine Case (1948) posed appetizing technical challenges, but Selznick’s interference dominated the results. It seems to me that the proliferation of suspense films was one cause of Hitchcock’s shift to more outré angles for his projects: increased sexual explicitness ( The Paradine Case, Rope ), provocative drama of essays abortion pro life, ideas ( Lifeboat, Rope ), confinement to cover letter a single setting ( Lifeboat, Rope ), long-take shooting ( Paradine Case, Rope, Under Capricorn ), and essays abortion pro life, duplicitous flashback ( Stage Fright ). Significantly, in his interviews with Truffaut, Hitchcock found fault with nearly all these experiments, suggesting that Under Capricorn left the realm of the thriller altogetherdespite the thesis 1996 fact that it presents a familiar woman-in-a-threatening-household situation. Having helped set the terms for thriller storytelling in the 1940s, he was obliged to recalibrate what he could offer in essays, the face of competition.
66. At the end of the decade, I think, Hitchcock had managed to re-synchronize with his contemporaries. Arthur. Most of his 1940s projects, finished and unfinished, have their sources in literary works of the 1920s and 1930s. Stage Fright came from a recent novel, but one very much in the 1930s English detective-story tradition. Essays Abortion. 67 Strangers on a Train (1950), however, was based on a male-oriented psychological thriller written by one of the women participating in the 1940s burst of suspense fiction. Despite making some compromises in adapting Patricia Highsmith’s original, 68 the master of suspense had allied himself with a writer who typified the new phase of the suspense thrillera phase that he had done much to thesis 1996 foster. 69.
I’m indebted to Sidney Gottlieb, Richard Allen, and abortion pro life, Thomas Leitch, who provided helpful criticisms of an essay earlier version of this essay. Thanks also to David Meeker, who provided access to a hard-to-find film. 1 : Mitchell Wilson, “The Suspense Story,” The Writer 60, 1 (January 1947), 15. 3 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 4 : Helen McCloy, “The Writing and abortion pro life, Selling of thesis 1996, Mysteries,” The Writer 60, 4 (April 1947), 137. 5 : Charlotte Armstrong, “Razzle-Dazzle,” The Writer 66, 1 (January 1953), 34.
6 : Freeman Wills Crofts, The 12:30 from Croydon (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), 187. 7 : Dorothy L. Sayers, “Introduction,” The Third Omnibus of abortion pro life, Crime (New York: Blue Ribbon, 1935), 7. 8 : Agatha Christie, Towards Zero (New York: Pocket Books, 1972; orig. 1944), 1213. 9 : Howard Haycraft, Murder for Pleasure: The Life and Times of the Detective Story (New York: Appleton-Century, 1941), 89. 10 : Quoted in Haycraft, 90. 11 : François Truffaut, Hitchcock (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967), 127. 12 : “Chaplin in ‘Circus’ a London Sensation,” New York Times (16 March 1928), 30.
13 : Some of these plays can still be read in acting editions. For a generous overview of them and many others see Amnon Kabatchnik, Blood on the Stage 19251950: Milestone Plays of thesis 1996, Crime, Mystery, and Detection (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010). 14 : Quoted in Sean French, Patrick Hamilton: A Life (London: Faber and essays, Faber, 1993), 139. 15 : For example, The State v. Elinor Norton , reviewed in John Chamberlain, “Books of the Times,” New York Times (29 January 1934), 13; Poison Pen , reviewed in Richmond Theatre, The Times (London) (10 Aug. 1937): 8; “Detective Stories: Death Has a Past ,” The Times (London) (6 June 1939), 19. 16 : Boileau-Narcejac, Le roman policier (Paris: Payot, 1964), 150154. 17 : Charles Morgan, “Mr. Milne Tries a New Trick with a Mystery Play,” New York Times (25 March 1928), 119.
18 : For much of what follows, I’m indebted to LeRoy L. Womanless Essay. Panek’s acute, entertaining study The Special Branch: The British Spy Novel, 1890-1980 (Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1981), especially chapters 112. 19 : Alice Payne Hackett, Sixty Years of Bestsellers 18951955 (New York: Bowker, 1956), 1233. 20 : I review this history from a slightly different angle in “I Love a Mystery: Extra-credit reading,” a blog entry. Essays Abortion. For stimulating and nonconformist accounts of the development of essays on team, detective fiction, see LeRoy Lad Panek’s books Watteau’s Shepherds: The Detective Novel in Britain 19141940 (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1979) and essays abortion, An Introduction to the Detective Story (Bowling Green: Popular Press, 1987). 21 : Janice Radaway, Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), 3031. 22 : Lee Wright, “Mysteries Are Books,” Publishers Weekly 139 (25 January 1941), 385. In 1946 James Sandoe estimated that mysteries constituted one-quarter of learning review, all book-length fiction published in the United States. See “Dagger of the Mind” in essays, The Art of the Mystery Story , ed.
Howard Haycraft (New York: Simon and legend, Schuster, 1946), 254. For more figures, see Frank Gruber, “Some Notes on Mystery Novels and Their Authors,” in The Notebooks of essays abortion, Raymond Chandler , ed. Frank Gruber (New York: Ecco Press, 1976), 3334. 23 : Flyleaf blurb for Mitchell Wilson’s The Panic-Stricken (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1946). 24 : “RadioGeneral Markets,” The Writer 64, 1 (January 1951), 58.
25 : Howard Haycraft, “The Burgeoning Whodunit,” The New York Times (6 October 1946), BR3BR4. 26 : Anthony Boucher, “Trojan Horse Opera,” in zola essay, Haycraft, Art of the Mystery Story , 249. 27 : Alice Payne Hackett, Fifty Years of Bestsellers (New York: Bowker, 1945), 7778. 28 : Richard Mealand suggested that novelists working in the psychological thriller gained a wider readership because of the film trend. See “Hollywoodunit,” in Haycraft, Art of the essays abortion pro life Mystery Story , 301303. 29 : Raymond Chandler, letter to Hamish Hamilton (13 Otober 1950), in Raymond Chandler Speaking , ed. Dorothy Gardiner and Kathrine Sorley Walker (Plainview, NY: Books for dissertation Libraries Press, 1971; orig. 1962), 60.
30 : Anonymous, “New Trend in essays abortion, the Horror Pix,” Variety (16 October 1944), 143. 31 : Fred Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” New York Times (28 May 1944), X3. 32 “New Trend in learning, the Horror Pix,” 143. 33 : See Sayers, “Introduction,” Third Omnibus of Crime , 6; Bruce Hamilton, Middle Class Murder (Leipzig: Tanschnitz, 1938; orig. 1936). 34 : Hollywood, The Dream Factory: An Anthropologist Looks at essays the Movie-Makers (Boston: Little, Brown, 1950), 119, 140.
See also Stanley, “Hollywood Shivers,” X3. 35 : Howard Haycraft, “Evolution of the dissertation review Whodunit in the Years of World War II ,” New York Times Book Review (12 August 1945),” 7. 36 : Anonymous, “Movie Companies Look to Detective Story Writers for essays pro life the New Psychological Film,” Publishers Weekly 149 (9 March 1946), 15151516. 37 : Anthony Boucher, “As Crime Goes By (24 February 1946),” The Anthony Boucher Chronicles: Reviews and Commentary 19421947 , ed. Francis M. Nevins (Lexington, KY: Ramble House, 2001), 102.
38 : “New Films in legend essay, London,” The Times (London), 25 May 1936, 12. 39 : See Tom Ryall, Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema (London: Croom Helm, 1986) and essays abortion pro life, Robert Murphy, “Dark Shadows around Pinewood and Ealing,” Film International no. 7 (2004), 2835. 40 : On his fondness for on team Buchan and Belloc Lowndes, see Charles Barr, English Hitchcock (London: Movie, 1999), 1014. 41 : Patrick McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light (New York: HarperCollins, 2003), 212. 42 : Alfred Hitchcock, Introduction, Intrigue: Four Great Spy Novels of Eric Ambler (New York: Knopf, 1943), viiviii. 43 : “ Foreign Correspondent ,” Variety (28 August 1940), 16; Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (7 April 1940), C3; advertisement for abortion pro life Rebecca , Variety (24 April 1940), 21; advertisement for Shadow of a Doubt , Variety (19 January 1943), 4; advertisement for Lifeboat and Spellbound , Variety (23 February1945), 12. Supposedly the “master of essay, suspense” label was coined by a New York advertising agent promoting the Suspense radio pilot (McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 276). 46 : New York Herald Tribune review quoted in advertisement for The Fallen Sparrow , Variety (19 October 1943), 5. 47 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Trio Gives Horror Picture New Dress,” Los Angeles Times (28 March 1943), C3; and abortion pro life, Radie Harris, “Hollywood Runaround,” Variety (11 September 1945), 4. The Disney film Harris mentions is dissertation learning review Make Mine Music , in which the abortion pro life Johnny Fedora and Alice Blue Bonnet episode is said to thesis 1996 contain suspense “as breathless as a Hitchcock thriller.”
48 : Philip K. Essays Abortion. Scheuer, “Killer Stalks Ida Lupino in High-Tension Thriller,” Los Angeles Times (30 January 1950), A7. 49 : Sidney Gottlieb surveys Hitchcock’s branding strategies, some quite amusing, in “Step Seventeen: Brand Hitchcock,” in 39 Steps to the Genius of Hitchcock: A BFI Compendium (London: British Film Institute, 2012), 7277. 50 : Alfred Hitchcock, “Let ‘Em Play God,” Hollywood Reporter 100, no. Dissertation Learning Review. 47 (11 October 1948), reprinted in Hitchcock on Hitchcock , ed. Essays Abortion Pro Life. Sidney Gottlieb (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 113. 51 : Hitchcock, “Introduction: The Quality of Suspense,” Alfred Hitchcock’s Fireside Book of womanless black essay, Suspense (New York: Simon and essays pro life, Schuster, 1947), viii.
This edited collection originally appeared as Suspense Stories Selected by Alfred Hitchcock (New York: Dell, 1945), but the introduction to that edition lacks the thesis 1996 passages I’ve cited here. 53 : William Fifield, “To the Golden Corn,” The Writer 62, 8 (August 1949), 259. 54 : William Dozier, “Trends and Perspectives,” Writers’ Congress; The Proceedings of the Conference Held in abortion, October 1943 under the Sponsorship of the Hollywood Writers; Mobilization and black church, the University of California (Berkeley: University of California Press), 3641. 55 : “ Man Hunt ,” Variety (10 June 1941), 13. See also the New York Times review in which Lang is called “a master of concentrated suspense” (T. Essays Pro Life. S., “ Hangmen Also Die ,” New York Times [16 April 1943], 24). 56 : Quoted in Philip K. Scheuer, “Film History Made by black church, ‘Double Indemnity,’” Los Angeles Times (6 August 1944), C1. 57 : Philip K. Scheuer, “Suspense Filmed in a New Way: Stride Made in Technique,” Los Angeles Times (3 September 1944), C1.
58 : I discuss this sequence, and link to the scene, in a blog entry. 60 : The play’s source is an Agatha Christie short story, “Philomel Cottage.” It does include a rival suitor, although he isn’t much help to the heroine. Interestingly, Christie’s story turns on essays pro life the revelation that the thesis 1996 husband isn’t the only practitioner of hearthside murder. 61 : Diane Waldman, “Horror and abortion pro life, Domesticity: The Modern Gothic Romance Film of the 1940s,” Ph. D. Legend Of King Arthur Essay. thesis, University of WisconsinMadison, 1981, 556. 62 : On restriction to a single character, Hitchcock notes that he avoids the pro life omniscient range of knowledge provided by Griffith-style crosscutting: “Griffith showed the man on the scaffold, then the messenger with the pardon riding to womanless black church essay the rescue. We show the man on the scaffold, but the audience doesn’t know whether our rider has started or not. That’s the secret of suspense today.” Quoted in essays, Philip K. Scheuer, “A Town Called Hollywood,” Los Angeles Times (19 April 1939), C3. The more famous formulation of the alternative is emile zola essay naturalism found in his dialogue with Truffaut: “In the usual form of suspense it is indispensable that the public be made perfectly aware of essays, all the facts involved” (Truffaut, Hitchcock , 51).
63 : I discuss these fluctuations in knowledge in Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), 2961. On North by Northwest , see David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012), 406410. 64 : “New Films in cover, London,” The Times (London) (7 December 1936), 12. 65 : McGilligan, Alfred Hitchcock , 310. 66 : I propose that competition played a more specific role in Hitchcock’s experiments with long-take filming at a period when many directors were trying out this technique. See my essay “Poetics of Cinema,” in essays pro life, Poetics of Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 3242.
67 : On Hitchcock’s literary sources, see the essays in Hitchcock at the Source: The Auteur as Adapter , ed. R. Barton Palmer and David Boyd (Albany: SUNY Press, 2011). 68 : In her essay “Suspense in Fiction” ( The Writer 67, 12 [December 1954], 404), Patricia Highsmith recalls that when her novel was filmed, “the director” (Hitchcock is never named) told her that he had to alter the plot so that Guy did not commit the murder that he owed Bruno. Dissertation Learning Review. “He told me that he had been unable to essays abortion find a script writer who could make the story convincing, or who could put the story into form for the screen.” Yet for essays Highsmith the pro life key to the story was that second, coerced murder: “Only therein lay the drama and the suspense for learning me.” The result, Highsmith judged, was a weaker story. 69 : For more on the development of suspense films and thrillers, see Martin Rubin, Thrillers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Ralph Harper, The World of the essays Thriller (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969); Jerry Palmer, Thrillers: Genesis and Structure of a Popular Genre (London: Edward Arnold, 1978); Charles Derry, The Suspense Thriller: Films in essays communication, the Shadow of Alfred Hitchcock (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988); Thomas Leitch, Crime Films (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). A more recent, if sketchy and essays abortion pro life, erratic, study is Patrick Anderson, The Triumph of the Thriller: How Cops, Crooks, and Cannibals Captured Popular Fiction (New York, 2007). Black. An encyclopedic guide to mystery fiction and film is Mike Grost’s website.
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